History of Ukraine-Rus' : vols. 1–10 (in 12 books) / M. Hrushevsky. - . - Edmonton, Toronto : Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press, 1997–.. - (The Hrushevsky Translation Project). - Translation of: Istoriia Ukraïny-Rusy. - Translators and editors vary. - Includes bibliographical references and indexes. - Пер.загл. : Історія України-Руси Vol. 1 : From Prehistory to the Eleventh Century / M. Hrushevsky; Translated by Marta Skorupsky; Edited by Andrzej Poppe and Frank E. Sysyn, with the assistance of Uliana M. Pasicznyk. – Edmonton, Toronto : Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press, 1997. – lxi+602 p. – ISBN 1-8955710-19-7 (v. 1).
The preparation of volume one of Mykhailo Hrushevsky, History of Ukraine-Rus', has been funded by a generous donation from Petro and Ivanna Stelmach.
Підготовка першого тому англомовного видання Історії України-Руси Михайла Грушевського здійснена завдяки щедрому дарові Петра і Іванни Стельмахів.
The Peter Jacyk Centre for Ukrainian Historical Research was established at the Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies. University of Alberta, in 1989. The Centre was endowed by Peter Jacyk of Toronto, who requested that the Centre undertake the translation o f Mykhailo Hrushevsky’s Istoriia Ukrainy-Rusy (History of Ukraine-Rus'). Mr. Jacyk and the Petro Jacyk Educational Foundation have remained enthusiastic and dedicated supporters of the Hrushevsky Translation Project. The Project has also received support from the Canadian Foundation for Ukrainian Studies and the National Endowment for the Humanities, Washington, D.C. Individual benefactors have undertaken the sponsorship of particular volumes. Numerous individuals have also contributed to the funding of the Hrushevsky Translation Project.
* * *
Mykhailo Hrushevsky's History of Ukraine-Rus'. Volume 1: From Prehistory to the Eleventh Century discusses the Ukrainian land and the people who inhabited it from the earliest times up to the formation of the Rus' state and its Christianization. Hrushevsky examines the emergence of Rus' civilization through the prisms of archaeology, anthropology, ethnography, and historical linguistics. He gives penetrating analyses of historical sources and pays special attention to the Primary Chronicle and the Normanist Controversy. The newly compiled bibliography of more than 1,700 items includes all manuscripts, published sources, and secondary works used by Hrushevsky.
Editorial Preface to the Hrushevsky Translation Project. - xv
Editorial Preface to Volume 1. - xvii
Introduction to the History o f Ukraine-Rus' / Frank E. Sysyn. - xxii
Introduction to Volume 1 / Andrzej Poppe. - xliii
Glossary. - lv
* * *
Maps. - lvii
Preface to the Third Edition. - lx
Preface to the First Edition. - lxi
I. Introductory Remarks. - 1–16
Terminology (1), the name of Ukraine and of the Ukrainians (1), the obscuration of the concept of Ukrainian nationality (2), the traditional historical scheme (3), the dispute over the national distinctiveness of the Ukrainian people (3). Present-day Ukrainian territory (5) and the number of Ukrainians (5), the evolution of the Ukrainian people (6), the physical features of the territory (7) and their effect on colonization (9); fluctuations in colonization (9), their effect on the evolution of Ukrainian life (10), the formation of the Ukrainian ethnic type (11), the fate of the people (11). The fundamental principles underlying the study of Ukrainian history: statehood and lack of statehood (12), the dominance of internal historical processes over external structures (13), the relationship of glottology and archaeology to history (13), the beginning of historical life (14), periodization (14), the general outline of this work (14).
II. From the Depths of Prehistory. - 17–61
Archaeological Traces o f Life on Ukrainian Territory
The territory of Ukraine in recent geological formations (17), climatic changes (18), the Great Ice Age (18), glaciation: its advances and recessions (18), the effects of the Great Ice Age on plant and animal life (19), the beginnings of human life (20), traces of Diluvial [Paleolithic] man in western Europe (21), his way of life (21), traces of Paleolithic culture in Ukraine (22), the most important sites (22), Paleolithic culture (24). Neolithic culture (24), its distribution in Ukraine (25), the most important centers: the Kyiv settlements (25), settlements in the middle Dnipro region (26), and others (27), the ‘pre-Mycenaean culture’ (27). Neolithic tools (28) and economic activity (29); spiritual development: elements of artistic creativity (29), the cult of the dead (30), burial types (30), the distribution of certain forms of burial (30), the culture of clay huts—the so-called pre-Mycenaean culture (33), the anthropological type of the population (34). The beginnings of the metal culture: copper (35) and bronze (35), the dispute over the existence of a bronze culture in Ukraine (36), the transitional character of the bronze culture (37); the beginnings of the iron culture (38), transitional types (38), cemeteries (39), the culture of northern Ukraine (39), the culture of the steppe and the forest-steppe zones: the antique current (40), the Asian current (40), the ‘Scytho-Sarmatian’ type (41), the ‘Gothic’ style (41), Slavic types (42), traces of Turkic nomads (42), the anthropological type of the population (43).
The Ethnicity o f the Population
Attempts to elucidate through linguistics (43), the question of the Indo-European original habitat and the Indo-European protoculture (44); theories about the original Indo-European habitat (44); the ‘Indo-European race' (45), the mixing of types (46), the inconclusive evidence for Ukrainian territory (47), the combined historico-linguistic method (48). The differentiation of the Indo-European family (48) and the separation of the Slavic group (49), Balto-Slavic unity (49) and the Balto-Slavic territory (49), the western boundary—the Germanic peoples (51), and the eastern boundary—the Finnic tribes (53), the boundary between the Balts and the Slavs (54); the tradition of the Danubian region as the Slavs’ original habitat (55), the theory of Subcarpathia as the Slavic cradle (55). First mentions of the Slavs in historical records (57), the names by which they were known (57); the differentiation of the Slavs (58); the original East Slavic habitat (58), Slavic settlement on Ukrainian territory before the Slavic migration (59), the cultural evolution of this territory (60), the cultural evolution of the Slavic ancestral home (60).
ІII. Historical Records from the Period before Slavic Expansion. - 62–121
The Greek Colonies
The Black Sea trading factories (62) and Greek colonization (62); Miletus and other mother cities (62), the expansion of colonization (63). The most important Greek colonies: Tyras and its environs (64), Berezan (65) and Olbia (65), Carcine and Cercinites (68), Chersonese (68), Pontic (70) and Roman protection (70), the Byzantine age (71). The southern coast of theT Crimea (72). Panticapaeum (72), Phanagoria and Tanais (73), the Kingdom of the Bosporus (73), Jewish colonization (75). Greek trade, on the Black Sea (75) and the economy of the Greek colonies (76), Greek cultural influence on the population near the Black Sea coast and on the population farther inland (77).
The Population o f the Steppes
The earliest mentions (78); legends about the Cimmerians (79); the Scythians (80) and their migration (80), the Scythia of Herodotus (81); the ethnicity of the Scythians, Sarmatians, and Alani (82), the culture and way of life of the Scythians (84), their religion (85), their burial rite (86), their political organization (86). Non-Scythian peoples in ancient sources: the Neuri (87), the Androphagi-Amadoci (88), the Melanchlaeni (88), the Budini (89). The decline of the Scythians (89): the migration of the Sarmatians (90), their tribes (91), their way of life (92). The Alani (93) and their way of life (94), their remnants (95).
The Western Lands
Thracian colonization (96), the Getae (96) and the Dacians (97), the Roman occupation (97), the Carpathian peoples: the Biessi, the Coestoboci, and the Carpi (98), their ethnicity (99); Thracian culture and way of life (100); the remnants of Thracian colonization—the Romanian question (101). TheBastarnae (102). Traces of Celtic culture in the Carpathian and Danubian lands (103).
The Migration o f East Germanic Peoples
The first evidence (105), the migration of the Goths (105), Goths in the Black Sea region (107), their settlement and tribes (108), the Goths in Dacia (108), their raids into Roman lands (109); Hermanaric and the Hermanaric legend (111), the ‘Dnipro burg' of the Goths (112).
The Turkic-Finnic Advance
A general overview (112), the point of origin of their migration (113); the Hiung-nu and the Huns (113), their ethnicity (114); the Huns in Europe and their advance (115), the defeat of the Goths (115), their remnants in the Black Sea region (116). The Hun state and its disintegration (117), the Bulgar horde (118), its migration (119). The Avar horde (120) and its migration (120).
IV. Slavic Colonization and Turkic Pressure. - 122–185
The Great Slavic Expansion
Traces of Slavic expansion before the great migration of the Slavs (122). The great Slavic expansion (123), expansion westward (123) and southward (124), Slavs in the Black Sea region (125), in the Balkan peninsula (126), and in the middle Danube region (128), Slavs in the east (129). Ukrainian colonization: the Antae and the Sclaveni (130), the derivation of these names (131), the history of the Antae name (131), the significance of the division into Sclaveni and Antae (132), the identification of the Antae with the Ukrainian tribes (133), the history of the Antae (134), their campaigns (134), their war with the Sclaveni (135), battles with the Avars (136), final reports about the Antae (137).
East Slavic Colonization in the Ninth to Eleventh Centuries
The information available (138). The northern group: the Krivichians and the Novgorodian Slovenians (139), the Drehovichians (140), the Radimichians and the Viatichians (142). The southern group: the Polianians (143), their territory (143), the name of Rus' (144), the Primary Chronicle’s theory about the Rus' (145); the Siverianians (146), the colonization of the Don region (147), the theory that the Polianians and Siverianians were Russians (150), the groundlessness of this theory (150). The Derevlianians (152), the Ulychians (152), their migration (155), the Tivertsians (156), the Dulibians (157), the Buzhanians and the Volhynians (157), the Cherven towns (158), the ‘Croats' of the Primary Chronicle (160), ‘White Croatia' and the question of the Croats (160). Ukrainian colonization in the western borderlands (162), present-day Ukrainian ethnic territory on the western frontiers (163); the Polish-Ukrainian border (164), polonization (164); traces of Rus' settlement on the Vistula River (166); territories of mixed population (166). The Ukrainian-Belarusian border (167). Transcarpathian Rus’: the Slovak border (167) and the Hungarian border (168), Transylvania (168), the Rus' on the Danube (169); the antiquity of western colonization (170), its mixed territories (171), its losses (171).
The Advance o f the Turkic Peoples and Colonization Losses in the Tenth Century
The Turkic migration (172), the Khazars (173), the Khazar state (174), its organization (175) and cultural significance (175), Turkic pressure (175), the migration of the Ugrians [Hungarians] (177), their occupation of the Black Sea region (178), their attacks on the Slavs (178). The Pechenegs (180), their migration (180), their raids (180), the weakening of the Ukrainian colonization of the Black Sea region (181), the war with the Pechenegs in the tenth and eleventh centuries (182), the fortification of the frontiers (184), the remnants of Slavic population in the steppes (185).
V. The Material Culture of the Ukrainian Tribes during and after the Period of Dispersion. - 186–232
Sources on the culture and way of life of the Ukrainian tribes (186). Agriculture: linguistic evidence (188), kinds of crops (188), farming techniques (189), vegetable cultivation (190) and orcharding (191), historical accounts (191), historical and archaeological evidence (192). Stock raising (194), linguistic evidence (194), breeding of domestic fowl (195), beekeeping (195), archaeological and historical evidence (195), hunting (197), fishing (198). Processing of raw materials: dressing of animal skins (198), weaving (199), pottery making (200), woodworking (200), metalworking (201). Way of life: food and drink—linguistic evidence (203), archaeological and historical evidence (204); clothing (205), archaeological remnants of ancient attire (206), historical descriptions and illustrations (206), dwellings (208), house furnishings (208), structures comprising the homestead (208), modes of travel (209), weapons (210), musical instruments and other items used for entertainment (212).
Earliest traces of trade (212), principal directions of earliest trade and cultural relations—southern and eastern routes (212), the western route (214); coin hoards (214). Trade in the age following the great dispersion: the Dnipro route (215), Black Sea trade (217), the Rus' in Byzantium (217), accounts of Mediterranean trade (218), the commodities of Rus'-Byzantine trade (218); trade with the Crimea (220) and the steppe hordes (221). Northern trade (222), trade with central Europe (222). Eastern trade (223), Bulghar (224) and Itil (225), Arab merchants in Kyiv (226), the commodities of trade with the East—Rus' exports (226), Arabic imports (228), period in which trade with the East flourished—dates on coins (229), the decline of trade (230). Domestic trade arid its commodities (230), Kyiv and the principal trade routes (231), imports in proportion to exports (232), the development of a credit system (232).
VI. The People and Their Way of Life. - 233–279
The physical type—ancient descriptions (233), archaeological data (234), the craniological question (235), hair and beard styles (235), personal hygiene (236). Character of the people (236), ancient accounts (236), humanity (237), feasts (238), martial nature (239). Religious beliefs (240), deities (241). Svaroh (241), Perun (242), Dazhboh and Khors (243), Veles, Svarozhych (244), dark forces (245), theomorphism (245), lesser deities (246), religious rituals (247), human sacrifice (248), sorcerermagicians (250), belief in fate (250). Belief in an afterlife (251), funerary rituals (252)—historical accounts (252), archaeological data: cremation (253) and inhumation of bodies (254); the funeral feast (255), the cult of clan ancestors (256). The pagan calendar (257), festivals (258).
Family and Social Relations
Marriage—account in the Primary Chronicle (259), forms of marriage (259), echoes of Old Rus' practices in the modern Ukrainian wedding ritual (260), traces of primitive forms of matrimony (261); the patriarchal family (264), linguistic evidence (264), historical data (265); the status of women (265), marital fidelity (266), the killing of wives (266), the status of widows (268), the authority of the father (268). The clan/kin (rid) (268), the гос1ъ in the Primary Chronicle (269), the extended family (270), the zadruga (270), the dvoryshche (272) and the institution of the posiabryna (272). The tribe (273). The decline of the clan order (273). The village community (274), the verv (275). The burg/fortified town (horod) (276), the horodyshche (277); networks of fortified towns (278), fortified town systems (279), the land (zem/ia)-domain Сvolost') (279).
VII. The Beginnings of the Rus' State. - 280–326
The Beginnings o f Political Organization o f the Ukrainian Tribes
The political organization of the Ukrainian tribes at the time of their dispersion (280), exercise of authority among the Antae (281), tribal leaders (282), the popular assembly (viche) (283), larger organizations (283). Accounts from the tenth to eleventh centuries: the tribal organization (284), the persistence of tribal units (285), towns as centers of domains (286), princes (286), the status of the prince in relation to the popular assembly (287), broader political organizations (288), al-Mas'udi’s Valinana (288).
The Origins o f the Rus' State
Kyivan legends (289), the theory of the Primary Chronicle—the Varangian bias (290), the Novgorodian bias (291), the concept in the Primary Chronicle (291), the unreliability of tradition (292), the combinationalism of the Primary Chronicle (293), the incongruities of the Primary Chronicle (293), skepticism about the Chronicle account in modem historiography (294), attempts to correct the Varangian theory (296). The origin of the Rus' name (296), the beginnings of political organization in the Kyiv region (297), the decimal organization (298); the possible origin of this system (299), the rise of Kyiv’s retinue forces (300), accounts of them (300); the chronology of the beginnings of the Kyivan state (301). Khazar suzerainty (302), conjectures about the impact of this suzerainty on the political organization of Rus' (302). The role of trade centers (303). Varangian retinues (304) and their role (304), the rise of princely power (305). Accounts of the Rus' in the ninth century: the Life of St George of Amastris and the life of St. Stephen of Sougdaia (306), the campaign of 860 (307), the campaign against Tabaristan (307), diplomatic relations: Rus' envoys to Constantinople in 839 and the ecclesiastical mission in the 860s (308). The earliest Kyivan princes (309), the unreliability of tradition (309), Askold (310), Dyr (310), the two Olehs (312), the list of the earliest princes (312).
The Formation of the Kyivan State
The schema of the Primary Chronicle (312), applying the rétrogradation method of historical research (313), various forms of dependence on Kyiv (314), the annexation of lands along the Dnipro route (315), Left-Bank lands (316), the Don region (318), the coast of the Sea of Azov (319), the Derevlianian land (319) and the lands lying farther to the west (319); Novgorod and the northern lands (320), the significance of Novgorod in the Rus’ political system (320). The territory of the Kyivan state at the beginning of the tenth century (322), the intertwining of state and commercial interests (322). The principalities of the mid-tenth century (323), the evolution of their dependence on Kyiv (324), the organization of the Rus' state in the tenth century (325), entralizing and decentralizing tendencies (325), the role of the Kyivan prince (326).
VIII. From Oleh to Sviatoslav. - 327–363
The Period o f Oleh
The Oleh of tradition (327); the campaign against Byzantium (328), the Rus'-Byzantine treaties (328), the Rus' in the Byzantine army (329); military expeditions to the coast of the Caspian Sea (330), the bylina about Volga and the campaign against the Indian Empire (331), the death of Oleh (332).
Ihor and Olka
The Ihor of tradition (333), the wars with the Ulychians and the Derevlianians (333), the campaign against Byzantium (334), the treaty of 944 (336) and the second campaign against Byzantium described in the Primary Chronicle (336); expedition into the Caspian Sea region (337), the structure of the state under Ihor and the portrayal of Ihor (339); chronology (339). Olha’s regency: the Oleh and Olha of tradition (340), the Derevlianian war (340), the legends about this war in the Primary Chronicle (341) and the echoes of unrelated contemporary legends in the Chronicle account (341), Olha’s journey to Constantinople as reported in the Primary Chronicle (342), Olha’s baptism (343), her sojourn in Constantinople as described in Byzantine accounts (344), the account in the Primary Chronicle (346), Olha’s envoys to Emperor Otto I (346), chronological data (347), Olha's domestic policies (347).
Descriptions of Sviatoslav in popular tradition (348), his Eastern campaigns (350), the wars with the Viatichians (350), his destruction of the Khazar state (351), the war in the Don region (351), the ‘Fragments of Toparcha Gothicus’ published by C. B. Hase (352), the fall of the Khazar state (353), relations between Rus' and the Pechenegs (353). The Bulgarian campaign (354), Byzantium’s proposal to Sviatoslav (354), the first Bulgarian war (356), Sviatoslav in Kyiv and the death of Olha (356), the division of Rus’ domains (357), the second Bulgarian war (358), the strategy of John I Tzimiskes (358), the war of 971 between Rus’ and Byzantium (359), the siege of Dorostolon (360), the peace treaty (361), the Pecheneg attack (362), the death of Sviatoslav (363).
IX. The Consolidation of the Rus' State: The Age of Volodymyr the Great. - 364–409
The Sons of Sviatoslav
The Chronicle tradition about the war between Iaropolk and Oleh (364), the causes of the war (364), Volodymyr's role and the legend of Rohnid (365), the war with Polatsk (365), the conflict with Iaropolk (367), the Primary Chronicle’s account of Volodymyr’s campaign against Iaropolk (367), the account in Ioakim’s Chronicle and more recent attempts to explain this war (368).
Rebuilding the Rus' State
Reports in the Primary Chronicle about Volodymyr’s campaigns (369), his wars with the Viatichians, the Radimichians, and the Bulgars (369); the structure of Volodymyr’s state and the domains he distributed among his sons (371). The western lands: the annexation of the Trans-Buh region (371), the question of the inclusion of western Ukraine in Poland (372) and in the Czech state (373), the reliability of the Chronicle tradition (374), the western boundary of Volodymyr’s state (374), Rus'-Polish relations (375) and relations with other western neighbors (376). The war with the Pechenegs (377).
The Christianization o f the Rus' State
Rus'-Byzantine relations (377), the alliance with Byzantium (377), strained relations and the campaign against Cherson (378), Byzantium’s capitulation and Volodymyr’s marriage (379); Volodymyr’s baptism (380), the date and circumstances of this event (380), the Chronicle account of the baptism (382), the combinational character of the Chronicle account of the baptism (383), the remnants of poetic accounts of the story of Volodymyr’s marriage (383), the political motives underlying Volodymyr’s marriage and baptism (384); the solicitation of the Byzantine court by barbarian princes (384); the legend of Volodymyr’s coronation (386); historical evidence (386). The baptism of Rus': the political significance of this event (388), Christianity in Rus' before Volodymyr (388); Varangian Christians (389), the measures applied by Volodymyr to ensure the spread of Christianity (390); the baptism of the Kyivans (391), the spread of Christianity (392); Christianity in the provinces (393).
The Second Half o f Volodymyr's Reign
The organization of the Rus' Church (393), the question of the first metropolitan (393), the location of the metropolitan see (395), the date of its founding (396); bishoprics (396); the endowment of the Church (397). Volodymyr’s support for other cultural endeavors (398), Byzantine art (398), education (399), schools (400), coinage (400). The significance of Volodymyr’s turn toward Byzantium (401), retrospective appraisals of Byzantine influences (401). Other questions relating to the second half of Volodymyr’s reign: the transition to dynastic ties (402), legislation (402), drawing closer to the people—feasts (403), foreign relations (403); revolts led by his sons (404). The death of Volodymyr (404) and his canonization (405), the political and cultural significance of Volodymyr’s reign (405), Volodymyr as portrayed in literary tradition (407) and popular tradition (407), Volodymyr as portrayed in byliny (408).
Notes. - 410–449
1. Greek Colonization of the Northern Coast of the Black Sea. - 410
2. Works on the Scythia of Herodotus. - 413
3. The Realm of Hermanaric and the Burg of the Goths on the Dnipro. - 414
4. The Question of the Antae. - 418
5. The Literature on East Slavic Settlement. - 421
6. The Theory of the Early Settlement of Russians in the Dnipro Region. - 423
7. The Literature on the Western Boundary of Ukrainian Settlement. - 427
8. On Ukrainian Anthropology and Ethnology. - 430
9. Reports from the Seventh to Ninth Centuries That Are Questionable or Mistakenly Applied to the Rus'. - 434
10. The Rus' Campaign against Constantinople in the Year 860. - 437
11. Sviatoslav’s Greco-Bulgarian Wars and the Chronology of the Events of the 960s and 970s. - 439
12. The Baptism of Volodymyr and Rus’. - 444
Excursus 1. The Earliest Chronicle of Kyiv. - 450–471
Versions and manuscripts of the Primary Chronicle (450). The Nestor tradition (451). An overview of studies of the Chronicle (451). The Tale of Bygone Years as a component part of the Primary Chronicle (452), its Novgorodian version (453), the shorter redaction of the Tale of Bygone Years (453), attempts to reconstruct the first original redaction (454), the date of its compilation (456), a chronological overview of the first redactions (457), later redactions of the Primary Chronicle (457), the date of their compilation and the question of editors (457), division into component parts (459) and a diagram of the evolution of the Chronicle (460). Sources used in the shorter redaction of the Chronicle (460) and in its later redactions (461), sources used in subsequent parts of the Primary Chronicle—literary sources (462), sources fo£,devising a chronology (463), the table of reigns (464), oral tradition as a source (464), traditional accounts and poetic works (464), editorial work (465); the disparities among the various compilations (465). Bibliography: publications of the Primary Chronicle and other chronicles and chronicle compilations (466), scholarly works on the Primary Chronicle (467) and on other manuscripts and compilations of the Chronicle (469).
Excursus 2. The Normanist Theory. - 472–492
The Primary Chronicle as the point of departure (472); the history of Normanism—eighteenth century (472), Ewers and the skeptics (473), Pogodin and Kunik (474), Kostomarov and Gedeonov (475), Ilovaiskii and the battle of the 1870s (476), Kunik (477), and Thomsen (478), the Gothic theory (478), Marquart’s hypothesis (479), the modem revival of Normanism (480). The role of Normanism (481). The historical evidence for Normanism: the Annales Bertiniani (482), al-Ya'qubi (483), John the Deacon (484), Liutprand (485), Symeon Logothete and Ibrahim b. Ya'qub (485). Philological evidence: the names of the Dnipro rapids (486), personal names and technical terms (487). Other evidence (489). The origin of the name Rus' (489).
* * *
Bibliography. - 493–562
Abbreviations. - 493
Sources. - 495
Secondary Literature. - 508
Translations Consulted. - 563
Index. - 565
Sysyn, Frank E. (editor–in–chief)
Pasicznyk, Uliana M. (managing editor)
Stech, Marko (project manager)
Yurkevich, Myroslav (senior editor)
Bednarsky, Dushan (associate editor)
Plokhy, Serhii (associate editor)
Hornjatkevyč, Andrij (assistant editor)
Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies
The Peter Jacyk Centre for Ukrainian Historical Research