History of Ukraine-Rus' : vols. 1–10 (in 12 books) / M. Hrushevsky. - . - Edmonton, Toronto : Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press, 1997–.. - (The Hrushevsky Translation Project). - Translation of: Istoriia Ukraïny-Rusy. - Translators and editors vary. - Includes bibliographical references and indexes. - Пер.загл. : Історія України-Руси Vol. 7 : The Cossack Age to 1625 / M. Hrushevsky; Translated by Bohdan Strumiński; Edited by Serhii Plokhy, Consulting Editor, and Frank E. Sysyn, Editor-in-Chief, with the assistance of Uliana M. Pasicznyk. – Edmonton, Toronto : Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press, 1999. – lxvi, 548 p. : il. – (The History of the Ukrainian Cossacks ; volume 1. The Cossack Age to 1625). – ISBN 1-895571-28-6 (v. 7).
The preparation of volume seven of Mykhailo Hrushevsky, History of Ukraine-Rus\ has been funded by a generous donation from Olga Pawluk, in memory of her husband, Stephen Pawluk.
Підготовка сьомого тому англомовного видання Історії України-Руси Михайла Грушевського здійснена завдяки щедрому дарові Ольги Павлюк в пам’ять її чоловіка бл. п. Степана Павлюка.
The Peter Jacyk Centre for Ukrainian Historical Research was established at the Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies, University of Alberta, in 1989. The Centre was endowed by Peter Jacyk of Toronto, who requested that the Centre undertake the translation of Mykhailo Hrushevsky’s Istoriia Ukraïny-Rusy (History of Ukraine-Rus'). Mr. Jacyk and the Petro Jacyk Educational Foundation have remained enthusiastic and dedicated supporters of the Hrushevsky Translation Project. The Project has also received support from the Canadian Foundation for Ukrainian Studies. Individual benefactors have undertaken the sponsorship of particular volumes. Numerous individual donors have also contributed to the funding of the Hrushevsky Translation Project.
The translation of volume 7 was funded by a grant from the Rational Endowment for the Humanities, Washington, D.C.
* * *
Mykhailo Hrushevsky's History of Ukraine-Rus'. Volume 7: The Cossack Age to 1625 inaugurates the History's subseries entitled "The History of the Ukrainian Cossacks". It focuses on the history of the Ukrainian Cossacks from their origins in the fifteenth century to their rise as an important military, social, and political force in the first decades of the seventeenth century. Hrushevsky examines the early history of the Cossacks in the context of Ukrainian colonization of the steppe and the extensive social changes taking place on the Ukrainian frontier. He discusses the causes and consequences of the Cossack anti-Polish uprisings of the period and investigates the interconnections between Cossackdom and the Ukrainian national, religious, and cultural revival. Hrushevsky's exhaustive study of the period marked a turning point in the historiography of Ukrainian Cossackdom. It largely ended the stage in which historians engaged mostly in the collection and publication of sources and the reconstruction of the sequence of events. Concurrently, it inaugurated the stage in which the analysis and interpretation of established facts became the primary goal of historical research.
This volume was translated by Bohdan Struminski and edited by Serhii Plokhy (consulting editor) and Frank E. Sysyn (editor in chief) with the assistance of Uliana M. Pasicznyk.
Editorial Preface to the Hrushevsky Translation Project. - xix
Editorial Preface to Volume 7. - xxi
Introduction: Revisiting the ‘Golden Age’: Mykhailo Hrushevsky and the History of the Ukrainian Cossacks / Serhii Plokhy. - xxvii
Glossary. - liii
Maps. - lix
* * * Preface. - Ixiv I. Southeastern Ukraine in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries. - 1–51
A general view (1); the special interest of eastern Ukrainian life (1); research problems (2)
Eastern Ukraine and its colonization before the Tatar attacks o f the sixteenth century
Physical circumstances of eastern Ukrainian life (3); the bounty of nature (3); the Ukrainian cornucopia (4). The decline of eastern Ukrainian life (5); the desolation of eastern Ukraine (6). The rebirth of state organization under Lithuanian suzerainty (7); defense and colonization measures under Vytautas (7); land grants (8); the decline of energy after Vytautas (9); the activity of Olelko’s descendants (10). Fifteenth-century colonization: castles on the steppe borderland (10); military-service colonization in the Bratslav region (11), in the Kyiv region (13), and beyond the Dnipro (13); peasant military-service communities (14); the castie system (15); the economy (15).
Tatar attacks and the military defense system of the sixteenth century
The devastation of 1482 and defensive measures (16); the policy of ransoms and gifts (17); the negotiations of the 1510s and Tatar devastations (17); the defense of the borderland (18); the agreement of 1512 and its futility (19); Tatar devastations of 1513-16 (20); defensive measures of 1518 (21); the rout at Sokal (22) and the ‘ordinance’ of 1520 (23); Tatar and Turkish attacks of the 1520s (23); the devastation of western Ukraine in 1524 (24); the Tatar devastations of 1526-27 (25); the attacks of 1528-30 (25). The results of Tatar devastations (26). Defensive measures: castles (27), their construction and defensive resources (28), flaws of construction (29) and other factors detracting from their usefulness to the populace (29); lack of military garrisons (30); poor condition of the castles (31).
Circumstances of colonization and popular self-defense
The role of the castles (32); general concentration of the populace at castle sites during the first half of the sixteenth century (32); lack of proper rural settlements in the southeastern Dnipro region (33); sparseness of colonization in the Boh region and western Kyiv region (34); the Zhytomyr area (35); Bila Tserkva and the Zvenyhorod area (36); the Boh region (36). The insecurity of Ukrainianlife (37). The population’s military self-defense (38) and its fortitude (38); the empty Ukrainian spaces (39) and their attractiveness to settlers (40); foraging (40); the foraging trades (42). Dangerous circumstances of the forage economy (43); Tatar attacks (44); the transition from foraging to guerrilla warfare and booty hunting (45); skirmishes with the Tatars (45). Campaigns against the Tatars, 1493-1523 (46); the raid on Ochakiv in 1528 (46); guerrilla warfare as sport and trade (47); Bernard Pretwicz’s account (48); border warriors of Ukraine (49); the development of border warfare (50).
II. The Origins of Ukrainian Cossackdom. - 52–98
An explanation o f the origins of Cossackdom; The Cossack phenomenon in everyday life and the name ‘Cossack'
The reasons for diverse theories on the origins of Cossackdom (52); etymological and ethnic theories in the historiography of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (52); the decline of the realist tradition (53). The theory about Circassians and Black Hats (54); improbability of actual Circassian colonization (54); the Tatar theory (55). Theories of a genetic link between Cossackdom and Kyivan Rus' (56); the anti-princely (Bolokhiv) theory (57); the steppe wanderer theory (57). The Cossack phenomenon in everyday life: its antiquity (58); analogies in old Rus' life (59). The term ‘Cossack*: its use among Turkic peoples of the thirteenth to fifteenth centuries (60); its transfer to the Slavs (60); the name ‘Cossack* in fifteenth-century records (61); various meanings of the word ‘Cossack*—robber (61), a free, homeless man (62), steppe forager (62), guerrilla booty hunter (63); Cossackdom as an occupation, not a social stratum or group, in the first half of the sixteenth century (64).
The Cossacks and their occupation in the first half of the sixteenth century; Relations between Cossackdom and the local administration and central government
The earliest report about the Ukrainian Cossacks (1492) (64); reports of 1493-99 (65) and 1502-3 (65); ‘Prince Dmytro’s Cossacks’ and the bursnyky (66); reports of 1510 (67); Cossack recruitment of 1524 (68). Cossack leaders in tradition (68) and actuality: Jurgis Pacas (69), Bohdan Hlynsky and Dmytro Putiatych (70), Semen Polozovych (70), Ostafii Dashkovych (71) and his relations with the local populace (72), Przecław Lanckoroński and other border warriors (73), Bernard Pretwicz (74). Rarity of documentary references to Cossacks and the reasons for this (74); denials by participants in Cossack campaigns (75); participation of local administrators and nobles in Cossack campaigns (76); Andrzej Lubieniecki’s references to noblemen practicing Cossack ways (77); absence of a Cossack stratum (77); elements that participated in Cossackdom (78); Cossackdom not organized as a stratum (78). Governmental policy toward Cossackdom in the first half of the sixteenth century (79); plan for Cossack recruitment in 1523-24 (80); Dashkovych*s plan of 1533 (81); Tatar complaints about the Cossacks (82); Turkish complaints (82), and government measures to curb Cossackdom (83); the circular of 1541 (83). Futility of government measures to police Cossackdom (84); Tatar attacks as a motive justifying Cossack attacks (85). Cossack campaigns of the 1540s: the rout of a caravan at the Sanzharivka River (86); a campaign against Ochakiv (86); complaints about the administration’s partnership with the Cossacks (87).
Prince Dmytro Vyshnevetsky and the significance of his activity
Lack of information on the motives for Vyshnevetsky’s activity (88); the castle on Khortytsia Island (89); journey to Turkey and return to Ukraine (89); plans for a campaign against the Crimea and timidity of the Lithuanian government (90); Vyshnevetsky’s appeal to Muscovy (90); Matvei Rzhevsky’s campaign against the Tatars (91); the Lithuanian government’s efforts to prevent a break with the Crimea (91); the siege of the Khortytsia castle by the Tatars in 1557 (93); Vyshenevetsky and Moscow (93); negotiations with the Muscovite government for a joint campaign against the Crimea (94); their futility (95); Vyshnevetsky’s and Danila Adashev’s campaigns against the Crimea (96); end of the Muscovite project and Vyshnevetsky back in Ukraine (96); the Moldavian adventure and Vyshnevetsky's demise (97); the tradition about him (98).
III. The Growth and Organization of Cossackdom in the Late Sixteenth Century. - 99–138
The development and consolidation o f Cossackdom in the mid-sixteenth century and the reform of Sigismund II Augustus
The government’s ineffectual efforts to curb the Cossacks (99); the circular of01560 (99); plans to recruit the Cossacks for government service and the importance of the reforms for the organization of Cossackdom (100). The disorganized character of Cossackdom in the first half of the sixteenth century (101); the process of Cossack differentiation and separation (102); the lack of organized forms and the question of Cossack organization in the first half of the sixteenth century (102); Cossack leaders (103); embryonic organizational forms—the company as the basic unit (104); the companies’ links with the steppe (105); beginnings of steppe settlement; ‘blockhouses’ (105); the Cossack trade in the times of Samuel Zborowski (105); the consolidation of steppe Cossackdom—Bartłomiej Paprocki’s account of Zaporozhian hetmans (106); the central role of the Sich (107); international relations of the Cossacks of the Lower Dnipro region (108). The promise of reform in 1568 (109); the charter of 1572 on the office of Cossack chief and judge (110); the recruitment of Cossacks by Jerzy Jazłowiecki (111) and its scope (111); the beginnings of Cossack immunity (112). The failure of the reform to curb the Cossacks (112); Bohdan Ruzhynsky and his campaign against Aslan Kerman (113); campaigns against Moldavia (114); Jan Świerczowski’s campaign (114); Ivan Pidkova and Shakh (115); other skirmishes with the Tatars and Turks in the 1570s (116); a Tatar campaign and a Turkish ultimatum (116).
Stephen Batory’s reform and subsequent ordinances (1578-1590)
The khan’s demands concerning Cossackdom (117); Batory’s skepticism (117) and orders (118); an agreement with the Cossacks (119); the establishment of an organization for the royal Cossacks (119); the composition of the Cossack regiment according to the 1581 register (120). The ‘Cossack freedoms’ (121); comparison of Batory’s reform with that under Sigismund II Augustus (122); later traditions concerning Batory’s reform (123); the significance of the reforms for the evolution of Cossackdom (124). Batory’s plans (124); reprisals for renegade actions (125); Cossack participation in the Muscovite War (126); growth of the Cossack renegade element with the end of the war in 1582 (126); Cossack renegade actions and skirmishes with the Turks in the 1580s (127); reprisals (128); recruitment of the Cossacks in 1583 (129). The Cossack campaigns of 1585 (130); the drowning of Jerzy Głębocki (130); the death of Batory (131); campaigns against the Turks in 1586 (132); Cossack unruliness in Ukraine (132); the recruitment of 1587 (133). The Cossack issue at the Diet of 1590 (133); the reform of Cossackdom (134); the means of its implementation (135); grants to Cossack chieftains (136); a new Cossack authority (136); the ordinance of 1591 (137); its infeasibility and the issue of billets and contributions (138).
IV. The First Cossack Wars. - 139–196
Kryshtof Kosynsky and the wars and turmoils of 1592-93
Kosynsky’s conflict with Kostiantyn Ostrozky—the views of contemporaries (139) and the later tradition (140); the actual causes of the conflict (140); the attack on the Bila Tserkva area (142); the commission of 1592 and negotiations at Trypilia (142); unrest in Pereiaslav (143) and in the regions of Bratslav and Volhynia (143); the mobilization of the Volhynian nobility (144); the campaign against Kosynsky and the battle of Piatka (145); Kosynsky’s capitulation (146). Kosynsky’s new preparations and Oleksander Vyshnevetsky’s account of Kosynsky’s plans (146); the campaign against Cherkasy and Kosynsky’s death (147); Vyshnevetsky’s alarm (148); his agreement with the Cossacks (149); the Cossack campaign against Kyiv (150); burgher unrest in Bratslav (150).
Relations between foreign states and the Cossacks and Cossack participation in the war with Turkey in 1593-96; Cossack expeditions and unrest in Ukraine and Belarus in 1595-96
The Austro-Turkish War and initial contacts between Austria and Cossackdom (151); Janusz Ostrogski’s recruitment (152); Stanisław Chlopicki’s mission (153); Pope Clement VIII and Aleksandar Komulovic’s mission (153); Cossack campaigns against the Turks in 1593-94 (154); Erich Lassota’s mission and a Muscovite embassy (154); Severyn Nalyvaiko’s campaign against Moldavia (155); an unsuccessful expedition by Mikołaj Jazłowiecki (156); the Cossack devastation of Moldavia (156); the influence of that devastation on the political situation (157); the campaign of Hryhorii Loboda and Nalyvaiko in 1595 (158); Jan Zamoyski’s expedition (159); Moldavia comes under the suzerainty of Poland (160). The significance of that fact for Polish-Cossack relations (160). ‘Ukrainian unruliness’ and Cossack billets (161); unrest in the Bratslav region and popular rule in Bratslav in 1594-95 (161); Cossack exactions in Polisia and Volhynia (162); Nalyvaiko’s expedition to Belarus (162); Matvii Shaula’s and Loboda’s expeditions (163); Cossack participation in the religious struggle in Volhynia (164). The government’s passivity (164); a commission against the Cossacks (165); an order to undertake a military campaign (166). The chief participants in the war on the Polish and Cossack sides (166); Loboda (166); Shaula (167); Sasko (167); Nalyvaiko (168).
The campaign of 1596
Stanisław Żółkiewski’s expedition (169); the pursuit of Nalyvaiko (170); Nalyvaiko at Bratslav (170); Żółkiewski’s negotiations with the Cossacks of the Lower Dnipro region and the merger of the Cossacks (171); Kyryk Ruzhynsky and the battle at Bila Tserkva (172); the battle at Hostryi Kamin (173). The Cossacks at Pereiaslav and their various plans (174); Żółkiewski’s efforts to cross the Dnipro (174); a battle and negotiations near Kyiv (174); Żółkiewski in the Trans-Dnipro region and the Cossack retreat to Lubni (175); the Cossacks outflanked by Jerzy Struś and forced to encamp on the banks of the Solonytsia (176). The blockade of the Cossack camp (177); unrest and the death of Loboda (177); Kaspar Pidvysotsky’s campaign (177); the capitulation of the Cossacks (178); the slaughter (179); the end of the war (180).
Reprisals against Cossackdom and its rehabilitation
The Poles triumphant (180); incompleteness of the Polish victory (181); plans for reprisals (182); a proclamation on ways to prevent Ukrainian unruliness (183); punishment of the leaders (184); the death of Nalyvaiko and the legend about it (184). The failure of the reprisals (185); the loyalist course of Cossack policy (186); the struggle between the loyal and unruly elements (187); supporters of Fedir Polous and Tykhin Baibuza (188); an internecine struggle in Zaporizhia (189); a battle in the Lower Dnipro region (190); attempts to enlist Polish support (190). The reunification of Cossackdom (191); Moldavian affairs (191); the government’s appeals to the Cossacks to participate in the Moldavian campaign (192); conditions set by the Cossacks (192); negotiations and the Cossack campaign (193); the Moldavian War (194); prospects of a Livonian war and new appeals to Cossackdom (195); demands advanced by the Cossacks and their rehabilitation at the Diet of 1601 (195).
V. Eastern Ukraine and Cossackdom at the Turn of the Seventeenth Century: The Social Significance of Cossackdom. - 197–244
The development o f eastern Ukrainian colonization and the growth of Cossackdom. The formation o f a Cossack stratum and its sociopolitical significance
The significance of the wars of the 1590s and sources about them for understanding the evolution and role of Cossackdom (197). The lack of a developed Cossack program in the 1590s (198). The fateful growth of Cossackdom (198) and its causes: the development of colonization in eastern Ukraine (199); migration from western and northern Ukraine (199); radical changes in colonization over half a century (200). The aims and purposes of migration (201); the lords’ movement in the footsteps of the migrants (201); the migrants confronted with subjection (202); local forms of subjection (202); the migrants’ resentment in the face of nobiliary claims (203). Cossackdom as a channel for the social aspirations of the migrants (205); the influence of government reforms on the development of Cossack immunity (206); governmental efforts to split Cossackdom (206); its uniformity (207); Cossack jurisdiction as a principle (207); the social value of the Cossack title (209); the influx of the eastern Ukrainian masses into the ranks of Cossackdom (209); the change in the character of Cossackdom under the influence of the economically active population (210). The evaluation of the social significance of Cossackdom in nobiliary circles (211); Cossack nuisances to the nobility (211); provisioning, supplies, and billets (212); popular ‘insubordination’ (213); statistics on the ‘insubordinates’ (214); nobiliary measures against insubordination (215); the Diet resolutions of 1601-9 (216); the abolition of Cossack immunity on nobiliary and clerical estates (216); disputes over that issue in commissions (217).
Cossack organization and daily life at the turn of the sixteenth to the seventeenth century
The organization of the Lower Dnipro region; the Sich (218); the number of Cossack troops (218); the organization of the Cossack Host (218); its division and Cossack officers (219); the Cossack chancery (220) and terminology (220); the authority of the hetman (222); the council (222) and its practices (222); noblemen in the Cossack Host (223). Narratives by contemporaries about the Cossack Host and Cossack life: Erich Lassota (223), Bartłomiej Paprocki (227), Carlo Gamberini (228), Jakub Sobieski (228), Szymon Starowolski (229); Guillaume Le Vasseur de Beauplan—general characterization (231), naval expeditions (232), the election of a hetman and the hetman’s authority (234); the Cossacks’ reputation for courage (235); Cossack asceticism (236); the theory of the influence of Western monastic knightly brotherhoods on the organization of the Sich (236).
Cossack movements of the 1590s against the background of Cossack evolution and further course of development
Movement into the settled area (237); Vyshnevetsky’s and Żółkiewski’s reports about Cossack plans for a revolution (238); their exaggeration of those plans and the plans’ actual basis (238); the question of a program in the movements of the 1590s—the inconsistency of even a purely Cossack program (239); the causes of the movements: Paweł Piasecki’s explanation and its worthlessness (240); the spontaneous and chaotic character of the movements (240); the development of booty hunting (241); the futility of reprisals (241); the influence of the campaign on subsequent Cossack tactics (242); the resurgence and successes of Cossackdom in the first decades of the seventeenth century (242); the sedentary Cossacks in the settled area and the beginnings of a division between Cossacks of the Lower Dnipro region and Cossackdom of the settled area (242); the growth of Cossack forces and the development of the Cossack program (243).
VI. The Political Situation during the First Decades of the Seventeenth Century and Its Influence on the Growth and Development of Cossackdom. - 245–302
The Livonian War and the turmoil in Muscovy
The Cossacks’ lack of enthusiasm (245); the motives that obliged them to participate in the Livonian War of 1602 (246); hardships of the war (246); changes of hetmans (247); the Cossacks in Belarus (248); Cossack claims on account of their service (249); the problem of soldiers’ quarters in Ukraine (250). Cossack campaigns at sea and in Moldavia (251). The growth of Cossackdom (251). The ‘Time of Troubles’ in Muscovy: the participation of the Cossacks in the ‘tsarevich’s’ campaign (252); the mobilization of Cossackdom (252); the Muscovite turmoil of 1605-8 and the Cossacks’ participation in it (253). Fighting with the Turks and Tatars (254); the destruction of Varna in 1606 (254); Moldavian campaigns (255). Unruliness in Ukraine (256); the Korsun ‘rebellions’ (256); the constitutions of 1607 against Ukrainian unruliness (257); the resolutions of 1609 (258); their futility (258). The Polish-Muscovite War of 1608-13 and the recruitment of Cossackdom (259); the Cossacks at Smolensk (260); the Cossacks in the Siverian region (261); lack of support from the nobility (262) and new recruitment of Cossacks in 1611 (262); Cossack operations in the Siverian region (263). The Cossacks in control of Ukraine (264); the rampage of adventurers from the Muscovite War (265); the resolutions of the Diet of 1611 (266); the resolutions of 1613 against the Cossacks (267). Cossack clashes with Turkey (268).
Cossack naval campaigns (1613-17) and the Polish commissions
The seagoing expeditions of 1613 (269); the campaign into Moldavia in 1614 (269); Żółkiewski’s ultimatum, preparations for war, and negotiations (270); an unsuccessful maritime expedition in 1614 (270); the destruction of Sinop (271). Plans for a Turkish campaign and panic in Poland (272). The Crimean internecine struggle and Tatar attacks (272). Ahmed Pasha’s expedition to the Dnipro (273); the commission of 1614 against the Cossacks (273); the commission’s decisions (274); Cossack tactics (274). The Cossack campaign against Istanbul in 1615 (275); the unsuccessful campaign of Ali Pasha against the Cossacks (277); the destruction of Kaffa in 1616 (277) and an expedition against Trabzon (278). Żółkiewski’s negotiations with the Cossacks at Pavoloch (279); Iskender Pasha’s expedition into Ukraine (280); the Polish-Turkish agreement of Busha-Iaruha (281). Żółkiewski’s campaign against the Cossacks in 1617: a change of hetman (Dmytro Barabash) (283); Cossack insubordination (283); the commissioners’ expedition (283); Petro Konashevych-Sahaidachny as hetman once again (284); negotiations at the Vilshanka River (284); the commission’s resolutions (284); the need for Cossack forces and the restraint of the Poles (285). Cossack policy (287); the tactics of the conservative Cossacks (288). Sahaidachny as their representative (289). Biographical information about Sahaidachny (289); characterizations of him (290); the tradition about him (291).
The campaign o f 1618 against Muscovy and the commission of 1619
The recruitment of the Cossacks for the Muscovite War (292). Seagoing expeditions of 1617-18 (293); Iskender Pasha’s campaign (293). Sahaidachny at Moscow (294); the Treaty of Deulino (295). An agreement with the Turks (295); promises to curb the Cossacks (295). Negotiations with the Cossacks (296). Żółkiewski’s expedition against the Cossacks (296); the commissioners’ declaration (297); a contemporary account of the negotiations and the Cossack council (298); controversial issues (299); the commission’s resolutions (300); Żółkiewski’s optimism (301); the illusory nature of the commission’s resolutions (301). The recruitment of Cossacks to the imperial army and the campaign against Perekop (302).
VIl. Cossackdom in the Service of Ukrainian National Aspirations: The Kyivan Educational Movement and the Restoration of the Orthodox Hierarchy. - 303–374
Cossackdom proclaims its solidarity with Ukrainian society on matters of Orthodoxy; Cossack participation in church affairs during the 1610s
The religious and national element in the Cossack program (303); the tradition about the irreligious character of Cossackdom (304) and religious ideology in Cossack life (304); culturally minded elements of Cossackdom and their sensitivity to the religious and national issue (305); needless speculation about special religious propaganda among the Cossacks (305); Iov Boretsky’s characterization of Cossack religiosity (306); the Cossack manifesto of 1610 (307); Hryhorii Tyskynevych’s letter (308). Cossack intervention in Kyivan church affairs in the 1610s: the case of Antonii Hrekovych in 1610 (309); the case of Metropolitan Neophytos (310); Ielysei Pletenetsky’s occupation of estates by force (310); the murder of Hrekovych (311). The political significance of Cossackdom’s alliance with the Ukrainian intelligentsia on religious and national issues (311); the question of whether that alliance weakened Cossackdom’s leanings toward the peasantry (313); the reasons for the failure to formulate socioeconomic postulates in the Cossack program (313).
The Kyivan cultural and national movement of the 1610s and 1620s
Cossackdom’s close association with Kyiv (314); the monastery at Trakhtemyriv as a liaison point (314); the development of Kyivan life at the end of the sixteenth century and the Catholic incursion (315). The Caves Monastery as a cultural and national center: Ielysei Pletenetsky and his activity (315); the establishment of the Caves Monastery printshop (317); controversial problems of its origins (317); Pletenetsky’s circle in the Caves Monastery (318); Zakhariia Kopystensky (318); Pamva Berynda (320); Tarasii Zemka (320); Lavrentii Zyzanii and Iov Boretsky (320); Galicians in Kyiv (321). The foundation of Halshka Hulevychivna (321); the founding of the Kyiv Brotherhood (322); the brotherhood’s school (323); the character of studies at the school (324); Uniate complaints about the brotherhood (324); Patriarch Theophanes and the further successes of the Kyiv Brotherhood (325). Dissonances in Kyiv circles (326); Petro Mohyla’s plans (327); the founding of Mohyla’s Caves Monastery College (327); the college’s first munus Minervae (329); opposition to Mohyla’s college (329); the transfer of Mohyla’s endowment to the brotherhood (330); the concentration of Kyiv cultural forces under the sway of Mohyla (331). The new significance of Kyiv as the cultural center of Ukraine and Belarus (331).
The restoration of the hierarchy
The Turkish threat to Poland (332); a division among the Cossacks—Sahaidachny and Iatsko Borodavka (333); the transit of Patriarch Theophanes and plans concerning him (334); the issue of the Orthodox hierarchy and the futility of proceedings at the Diet (334); a danger for the Orthodox Church (335); the king’s ruthlessness (335); the gradual eradication of the Orthodox nobility (335); plans to consecrate a new hierarchy (336); Patriarch Theophanes in Kyiv and Polish intentions concerning him (337); negotiations on the consecration of a new hierarchy (338); the role of Sahaidachny and Cossackdom (339); the consecration of the metropolitan (340) and of the bishops (340).
Negotiations with the government in 1620-21
Poland’s break with Turkey (341); the Cossacks at Istanbul (342); Iskender Pasha’s campaign into Moldavia (342); Żółkiewski’s ineptness in dealings with the Cossacks (343); the helplessness and passivity of the Polish government in dealing with Cossack affairs (343); the ОДога catastrophe (344); panic in Poland (344); the Poles solicit Cossack assistance (345); negotiations with Patriarch Theophanes (346); Diet debates (346); Lavrentii Drevynsky’s speech (347); the postulates of the Orthodox (349); the resolutions of the Diet of 1620 (350). The patriarch’s departure and his parting advice (351). Meletii Smotrytsky in Vilnius and the Uniate agitation against the newly installed Orthodox bishops (351); government reprisals (352); the literary polemic (352). The Cossacks’ preparations for a campaign (353); plans for a seagoing expedition and fear in Istanbul (354). Reports about the government reprisals against the Orthodox and protests by Kyiv circles: the bishops’ manifesto (355); protests by the clergy and the community (355); agitation in the community and within Cossackdom (356). The synod in Kyiv (357); the council at Sukha Dibrova (358); mobilization delayed (359); Cossackdom’s tactics of compromise (359).
The Khotyn War o f 1621
The mobilization of Cossackdom (360); a seagoing expedition and panic in Istanbul (361); Sahaidachny’s and Iezekyil Kurtsevych’s mission to the king (362); the king’s evasive responses (363); the Diet of 1621 (363). The Cossack march to Khotyn (364); Sahaidachny in the Polish camp (364); alarm among the Poles (365); the Cossack march and the famous defense of the Cossack patrols (365); Sahaidachny in danger (366); his arrival in the Cossack camp and election as hetman (366); Borodavka’s demise (367). The Cossack Host joins the Polish camp (368); its components (368); battles with the Turks (369); dissatisfaction among the Cossacks (370); settlement of the crisis (371); negotiations with the Turks (372); the end of the Khotyn War (373); the Cossacks’ departure to Ukraine (373).
VIII. From Khotyn to Kurukove. - 375–439
The end of the Turkish threat and the disappointment of the Orthodox
Cossack glory in Poland as a result of the Khotyn War (375); King Sigismund Ill’s unfriendly stance toward Cossackdom (375); Cossack petitions after the Khotyn campaign (376); their contents and significance (377); the king’s unsympathetic attitude to the petitions (377); the instruction to the commissioners (377); the government’s intentions (378). The postponement of the commission (379); a response on the religious issue (380); the Cossack delegation of 1621 (381); the plan for a Cossack campaign into Livonia (381); the death of Sahaidachny (382); sorrow in Ukraine (383); alarm in Polish circles (383); the dispatch of a commission and the election of Olyfer Holub (384); the commissioners’ negotiations with Cossackdom (385); the Cossacks’ disobedience (386); seagoing expeditions (387); the commissioners’ decisions of 1622 (387).
The Diet o f 1623 and the ecclesiastical and national demands
The efforts of the Orthodox in preparation for the Diet session (388); the metropolitan’s Justification (389); the Supplication of the Orthodox nobility (389); the Cossack petition (391); grievances of the Orthodox (391). Alarm in Uniate circles (392); an unfavorable atmosphere for Cossackdom (393); measures undertaken by the Catholics (393); an interpellation to the king on the issue of the Greek faith (394) and his reply (394); a plan for a religious compromise (395); Diet resolutions on the religious issue (396) and on the Cossack issue (396); the failure of the Orthodox campaign (397); a split among them (397).
The political horizons of Cossackdom in 1624-25; Shahin Giray, Yahya, and negotiations with Muscovy
Polish-Ukrainian tensions (398); changes at the hetman’s post (398); a seagoing expedition (399); the murder of Iosafat Kuntsevych (400); the Diet of 1624 (400). The Cossacks in Crimean internecine fighting (401); the Turkish campaign in the Crimea and the Cossack expedition to Istanbul (402); the war in the Crimea and the Cossacks in the army of the Giray s (403); Shahin Giray’s efforts to form an alliance with Poland (403); his treaty of alliance with the Cossacks (404). Alexander Yahya (405); his arrival in Kyiv and Zaporizhia (406); a plan for a campaign against Turkey and Kyiv’s hopes in Muscovy (406); relations with Muscovy in the 1620s (407); the mission sent by Metropolitan Iov Boretsky (408); a plan to subject Ukraine to Muscovite suzerainty (409); Muscovy’s reluctance (410); Yahya’s embassy to the tsar (411); the response of the Muscovite government (411).
Before the campaign o f 1625
Changes of hetmans (412); plans for a campaign against Turkey (412); a royal courtier in Zaporizhia (413); a Cossack mission to the Diet (413); the metropolitan’s additions (414); unrest in Kyiv (415); the Diet of 1625 (416); a royal ultimatum and a Cossack rebuff (416); seagoing expeditions (417); a naval battle at Qara Kerman (418); battles at Ochakiv (419). Polish preparations for the campaign—rancor against the Cossacks (420); obstacles (421); the intolerability of relations with the Cossacks as seen by the king (421); a Crimean danger (422); Stanisław Koniecpolski secures the neutrality of the Horde and Turkey (422); the appointment of a commission and the instruction to it (423); the mood in nobiliary circles (a letter by Jerzy Zbaraski) (424).
The campaign o f 1625
Koniecpolski’s expedition (425); the unpreparedness of Cossackdom (425); negotiations at Kaniv (426); negotiations at Kryliv (427); the composition of the Polish and Cossack armies (427). The commissioners’ declaration (428); the Cossack reply on political matters (429) and religious and national issues (430); the modus vivendi of the Cossack declaration (430); the declaration of war (431). The battle on the Tsybulnyk (432); the retreat of the Cossacks and battles at river-crossing points (432); the battle at Lake Kurukove (433); the renewal of negotiations by Koniecpolski (434); the Cossack declaration (435); negotiations (435); concessions (437); the resolutions of the Kurukove commission (437); the return of the Polish army (438); the infeasibility of the Kurukove decisions (439).
Notes. - 440–470
1. Literature on Socioeconomic Conditions and Colonization in Eastern Ukraine in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries. - 440
2. The Origins of Cossackdom. - 442
3. Ostafii Dashkovych and Przecław Lanckoronski. - 449
4. The Poetic Tradition about Cossackdom. - 452
5. Stephen Batory’s Reform. - 456
6. Literature on the Cossack Movements of the 1590s. - 458
7. Cossackdom in the First Two Decades of the Seventeenth Century. - 461
8. Kyivan Cultural and Ecclesiastical Life during the First Decades of the Seventeenth Century and the Restoration of the Orthodox Hierarchy. - 463
9. Literature on the History of Cossackdom in 1620-25. - 468
* * *
Bibliography. - 471
Abbreviations. - 471
Unpublished Sources. - 473
Published Sources. - 474
Secondary Literature. - 485
Tables of Rulers and Hetmans. - 503
Translations and Publications Consulted. - 511
Index. - 513
Sysyn, Frank E. (editor in chief)
Plokhy, Serhii (deputy editor)
Pasicznyk, Uliana M. (managing editor)
Yurkevich, Myroslav (senior editor)
Stech, Marko R. (project manager)
Bednarsky, Dushan (associate editor)
Hornjatkevyč, Andrij (assistant editor)
Plawuszczak–Stech, Tania (technical editor)
Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies
The Peter Jacyk Centre for Ukrainian Historical Research