History of Ukraine-Rus' : vols. 1–10 (in 12 books) / M. Hrushevsky. - . - Edmonton, Toronto : Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press, 1997–.. - (The Hrushevsky Translation Project). - Translation of: Istoriia Ukraïny-Rusy. - Translators and editors vary. - Includes bibliographical references and indexes. - Пер.загл. : Історія України-Руси Vol. 9, book 2, part 1 : The Cossack Age, 1654–1657 / M. Hrushevsky; Translated by Marta Daria Olynyk, Edited by Serhii Plokhy, Consulting Editor, and Frank E. Sysyn, Editor in Chief, with the assistance of Myroslav Yurkevich. – Edmonton, Toronto: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press, 2008. – (The History of the Ukrainian Cossacks ; vol. 3, Book 2, Part 1. The Cossack Age, 1654-1657). – ISBN 1-895571-22-7 (set). – 978-1-894865-10-4 (v. 9, bk. 2, pt. 1).
The preparation of volume nine, book two, part one of Mykhailo Hrushevsky's History of Ukraine-Rus' has been funded by a generous donation from Daria Mucak-Kowalsky in memory of her husband, Mykhailo Kowalsky.
Підготування першої частини другої книги дев’ятого тому англомовного видання Історії України-Руси Михайла Грушевського здійснене завдяки щедрому дарові пані Дарії Муцак-Ковальської в пам’ять її чоловіка бл. п. Михайла Ковальського.
The Peter Jacyk Centre for Ukrainian Historical Research was established at the Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies, University of Alberta, in 1989. The Centre was endowed by Peter Jacyk of Toronto, who requested that the Centre undertake the translation of Mykhailo Hrushevsky’s Istoriia Ukrdiny-Rusy (History of Ukraine-Rus'). Mr. Jacyk was an enthusiastic and dedicated supporter of the Hrushevsky Translation Project, and the Petro Jacyk Educational Foundation continues his commitment and legacy of support. The Project has also received support from the Canadian Foundation for Ukrainian Studies. Individual benefactors have undertaken the sponsorship of particular volumes. Numerous individual donors have also contributed to the funding of the Hrushevsky Translation Project.
The translation of volume 9, book 2 was funded by a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities, Washington, D.C.
* * *
The ninth volume of Mykhailo Hrushevsky's History of Ukraine-Rus' is by far the longest in the ten-volume series. Written in the late 1920s, after Hrushevsky had returned to Ukraine from exile, the volume is based mainly on a wealth of documents gathered by Hrushevsky and his students in the Moscow archives. Many of these documents were little used or unknown to previous historians.
The pivotal event in this part of the volume is the Pereiaslav Agreement of 1654, which brought Cossack Ukraine under a Muscovite protectorate. Needing military assistance to continue the struggle with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, against which the Cossack Host and much of the Ukrainian populace had rebelled in 1648, Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky was prepared to make an agreement that brought Muscovy into the conflict on terms favorable to the Cossacks. Hrushevsky analyzes the diplomatic and military developments that led up to the agreement, and in chapter 7 he presents the most detailed and thoughtful treatment in modern historiography of the Pereiaslav Council of January 1654 and the subsequent understandings with Moscow. In his discussion Hrushevsky deals not only with previous historiography and the documentary record, which is incomplete, but also with the negotiations, taking account of the conflicting motivations of the two sides.
The subsequent chapters trace the difficult course of Cossack Ukraine's relations with Muscovy in 1654-55: the joint military campaign against the Commonwealth, which almost led to disaster because of poor coordination; the Cossack leadership's efforts to take control of the western Ukrainian and southern Belarusian lands; the ferocious battle of Dryzhypil; and the devastation of the Bratslav region by Polish and Tatar forces, against which Muscovy provided no effective protection. On the basis of the travel diary of Paul of Aleppo, a Syrian cleric, Hrushevsky gives an account of daily life in Ukraine at the time, with many details unavailable in other sources. Unparalleled in breadth of research, Hrushevsky's work brings to life a turbulent and politically decisive period in the life of the Ukrainian people.
This volume was translated by Daria Marta Olynyk and edited by Serhii Plokhy (consulting editor) and Frank E. Sysyn (editor in chief) with the assistance of Myroslav Yurkevich.
The volume includes an extensive historical introduction, a full bibliography of the sources used by Hrushevsky, 3 maps, and an index. The preparation of this volume for publication was funded by a generous donation from Mrs. Daria Mucak-Kowalsky (Etobicoke, Ontario) in memory of her husband, Mykhailo Kowalsky.
Editorial Preface to the Hrushevsky Translation Project. - xvii
Editorial Preface to Volume 9, Book 2, Part 1. - xix
Introduction: Renegotiating the Pereiaslav Agreement / Serhii Plokhy. - xxvii
Glossary. - lv
Maps. - lxiii
* * * VI. The Ukrainian-Muscovite Agreement and the Muscovite-Polish Breach. The Autumn Campaign of 1653 and the Zhvanets Truce. - 1
Cossackdom demands Muscovite assistance after the Moldavian debacle (1); the Muscovite government inclines toward intervention—the draft resolution of 25 May O.S. (3); vacillation and delay (3); the hetman’s threats and the tsar’s assurances—Fedor Lodyzhensky’s mission (4); the embassy of Herasym Iatskevych and Pavlo Abramovych (4); their account of the situation in August 1653 (4-5); the hetman’s letter of 9/19 August N.S. to the tsar (6); the undersecretary Ivan Fomin visits the hetman (7-9); the hetman plans a campaign in Belarus (9); Fomin is discharged (9-10); the hetman sets out on campaign to Birky (12).
The mission of Prince Boris Repnin-Obolensky and his associates (13); the first conference on 2 August N.S. (14); the statement of the Muscovite envoys (14-16); religious persecution—the Polish commissioners deny it (16); the motive for leasing of churches by Jews (17). The conference of 6 August—the king’s reply concerning Khmelnytsky (17-18); on Khmelnytsky’s acceptance of Islam (18). The conference of 8 August [N.S.]—a discussion on the subject of religion (19-20); the Zboriv resolutions (20); plans to send a messenger to Khmelnytsky (22-24). The conference of 9 August [N.S.] (25); an account of the Cossack mission in Istanbul (26); Was there an agreement at Zboriv? (27); Polish reproaches for allowing a Cossack army to cross the Briansk region (27-28). The conference of 15 August N.S. (29); the envoys decline to send a messenger to Khmelnytsky (30). The farewell audience and departure of the envoys (31); the king’s ‘letter of response’ (32); the issue of Khmelnytsky’s acceptance of Islam is raised again (33-36).
The Muscovite government takes the Zaporozhian Host under the tsar’s protectorate—the discharge of Iatskevych and Abramovych (36); the mission of Rodion Streshnev and Martemian Bredikhin to the hetman (37); Lavrin Kapusta’s diplomatic mission (38); the return of the grand envoys (39); the assembly of the land ‘on the Lithuanian and Cherkasian matter’ (39-40); a statement (40-43); the resolutions of 1/11 October (43); the grand envoys to Ukraine (43); the declaration of war on Poland issued on 2 November N.S. (44).
The king’s march on Ukraine: the Polish army at Hlyniany (45); plans and councils (46); the march to Halych (46-47); ‘news from Ukraine,’ September 1653 (47); the march to Kamianets (48); vacillation in the king’s headquarters—news from Moldavia (48); about Khmelnytsky (49-50); his mission from Birky (51); letters of 7 and 8 September (51-52); motives for this ‘stratagem’ (53-54).
In Khmelnytsky’s army and headquarters—contemporaries’ accounts (54-55); opposition to the campaign (55); Kapusta’s diplomatic mission (55-56); awaiting the khan (56); the khan’s arrival and the renewal of the treaty (57); the question of captives (57-58); the khan demands Khmelnytsky’s submission (59); news of the death of Tymish (60-61).
The march of the Polish army—news of the Cossack Host (62); the decision to march deep into Ukraine (63-64); the march on Bratslav (64); alarming news from Moldavia and the return to Kamianets (65); the Polish camp at Zhvanets (66-67). The courier Ivan Vonifatiev (67); his news (68-69); information in the Polish camp (69-70); accounts of captive Tatars during the second half of October (71); Tatar devastation (71-72); relations with Gyôrgy Râkôczi and Gheorghe Çtefan (72); Andrzej Kazimierz Młocki’s mission to the tsar (72-73). The khan at Bar (73-74); the danger of a blockade (74-75); the khan’s plans (75). The Muscovite diplomatic mission of Streshnev and Bredikhin in Ukraine (75-76); a meeting in Chyhyryn (76); the impossibility of being admitted to the hetman (77); news gathered by the Muscovite envoys: the hetman’s campaign and the death of Tymish (78-79); the devastation of western Ukraine (79); Cossack dissatisfaction with the hetman’s concessions to the Tatars (79); the letters of the hetman and Vyhovsky (81-82). The arrival of the grand envoys; alarm in Chyhyryn (83). Streshnev’s futile attempts to reach the hetman (84); his sojourn in Uman (85). Buturlin’s news (86-87); Ivan Fedorovych is dispatched to establish ties (87); the hetman’s letter of 8/18 November [O.S.] from Bar (87-88). News from the Cossack camp for internal dissemination concerning the truce with the king (89—90); Vyhovsky’s account of 30 November O.S. from Husiatyn (90-91).
The Zhvanets truce—a Ukrainian record (91-93); Vyhovsky’s account to Streshnev (93-96); the hetman’s account (96); what was said in the Host (97). Polish accounts (98-99); a fabrication about the defeat of the Cossacks and the death of Khmelnytsky (99); the difficult situation of the Polish army and its disintegration (100). The vizier initiates negotiations (100); the account of the ‘Narrative’ (100-103); correspondence (103-5); the rout of the Poles at Husiatyn (106); initial negotiations in early December (106-7); the commissioners’ first meeting on 13 December [N.S.] (109); the conclusion of Polish-Tatar negotiations (110-11); the concealment of the conditions of the truce (111-12); the actual conditions (112-13); the renewal of the Zboriv Agreement (113—14); Polish permission to take captives (114); its concealment (115); Khmelnytsky’s measures against Tatar raids (116).
Ambiguities created by the truce on the Ukrainian side (117); contradictory representations of the hetman’s government (118); unclear relations with the Crimea (118-19); the explanations offered by the hetman and Vyhovsky (119-20). The end of danger (121). Details of daily life in the reports of Streshnev and Bredikhin (121-23); the hetman’s and Vyhovsky’s correspondence with them (123-24); the Chyhyryn audiences (124-26); plans for war with Poland (126); prospects of annexing Belarus (121, 127); the discharge of Streshnev (127-28). The tsar declares war on Poland through Młocki (128).
VII. The Pereiaslav Agreement. - 129
Buturlin’s mission in Ukraine—his journey and reasons for his delay at the border (129-30); Ivan Fedorenko brings the hetman’s orders for a meeting with the mission in Pereiaslav (131); news of the hetman’s truce with the king (131). The gathering in Pereiaslav (133); ecclesiastical and ritualistic accents and their political significance (133—34); Buturlin’s final instructions (135); the arrival of the voevodas and their troops at the border (135).
The Pereiaslav Agreement—the arrival of the hetman and the Cossack officers in Pereiaslav (136); the question of Bohun’s presence (136-37); delegations from the regiments (137-38). The great council of 8/18 January (138); a solemn audience (138-39); the hetman presents conditions (141); the Cossack officers demand an oath from the envoys on behalf of the tsar (141-42); the hetman and the Cossack officers swear an oath (142-43); the transfer of insignia (143-44); demands for a charter of guarantee (145-46); a delegation of noblemen visits Buturlin (146); the farewell audience (146-47). The dispatch of masters of the table and gentrymen to the regiments (147); Buturlin in Kyiv (148); an incident with the metropolitan (148-49). Buturlin in Nizhen and Chemihiv (150—52); news collected by him (152).
An interpretation of the Pereiaslav Agreement—Muscovite tendencies (153-54); the position of the Ukrainian side (154); the question of the oath in the literature (155); Gennadii Karpov’s polemic with Mykola Kostomarov (155—56); ‘agreement’ or ‘grant’—scholars’ views (157-58); the conditional nature of the act of Pereiaslav (158-59); guarantees of the agreement (159-60); discrepancies between the Muscovite and Ukrainian positions (160-61). Negotiations with the Muscovite envoys in Pereiaslav (161-62); the question of future relations (163-64); the fragmentary nature of Muscovite reports (164-65); the question of revenue, the role of the Muscovite voevodas, etc. (165-66); incomplete information (167); the failure of the Ukrainian side to defend the interests of state (168-69).
Impressions of the Pereiaslav act—the accounts of Makarii Krynytsky (169-71), Ioakhym lerlych (171), and the archpriest of Chomobyl (171-73). Rumors of Muscovite protection and its prospects—Semen Pavsha’s report (173-75); news sent by the Moldavian hospodar and the starosta Krzysztof Tyszkiewicz (176-77); Marcin Golinski’s rumors (177); Maiolino Bisaccioni (177-78); Theatrum Europaeum (178). The Muscovite census and the ensuing alarm (180-81); meetings of the Cossack officers in Korsun and Chyhyryn (181-82). Polish measures in Istanbul and the Crimea, particularly against the Muscovite protectorate over Ukraine (182-84); the Ukrainian government’s countermaneuvers (185); an assessment of Ukrainian policy toward the Porte in the literature on this subject (185-88).
Preparations for a diplomatic mission to Moscow—the formulation of a petition to the tsar in February 1654 (188); the text of the petition (188-90); its unsystematic character and obvious superimpositions (190-91); remnants of ‘ordinances for the Host’ and the plan for a vassal state (191-92); points dictated by the strategy of the moment (193); the issue of wages (193). The hetman’s missive of 17/27 February [O.S.] to the tsar (194-96); the recommendation for the Pereiaslav delegation (196). The members of the diplomatic mission (196-97). The mission of the master of the table Fedor Poltev (198); the voevodas’ arrival in Kyiv (198); their instructions (199-200); the conflict with the metropolitan concerning land for a fortress (201); the voevodas appeal to the Cossack officers (202); the hetman’s position (202-3).
The Moscow negotiations—the arrival and initial audience of 13/23 March (203); initial negotiations (204); redactions of the negotiations (204-5); the issue of the voevodas (205-6); foreign relations (206-7); general liberties (207-8); matters of the Host (208-9); ‘foraging’ (209-10); strategic tasks (211). The tsar’s resolutions (212-13). Additional requests (213); the discharge of the envoys on 19/29 March (213-14). ‘The Articles of Bohdan Khmelnytsky’—the state of the question in the literature (215); the eleven-point text as the most probable one (216-20). The tsar’s charters (221); the privilege to the Host (221—23); the privilege to the nobility (223-24); grants to the hetman (225); charters to Samiilo Bohdanovych-Zarudny and Pavlo Teteria (225-26); the decree concerning the metropolitan and other decrees (226-27).
Warnings to the tsarist government—the courier Vasyl Lytvynenko (228); ‘enticing letters’ sent to the tsar with Fylon Harkusha (229); the hetman’s missive of 21 March [O.S.] (229-30); Radziwiłł’s letter and the king’s proclamation (230-31); Polish measures concerning Ivan Bohun (231-32); the watchword of the violation of the rights of the patriarchate of Constantinople (232). The nervous mood in Chyhyryn—the order to Harkusha (233), missives to Bohdanovych-Zarudny and Teteria (233-35); warnings of the Host’s dissatisfaction (235). The Muscovite government makes concessions—the tsar’s missives of 12/22 April (236); the tally of Ukrainian revenues is canceled, and revenues are left to the hetman’s disposal (236-37); missives to Ivan Vyhovsky and Ivan Bohun (238-39).
Petitions of the burghers of Pereiaslav and Kyiv—Muscovite policies toward the towns (240); their fundamental significance (241); information given by the Pereiaslav delegates—grievances against the Cossack administration (242-44). The Kyivan community’s supplication (244. - С. 6); the tsar’s privilegesto the city of Kyiv (247); the tsarist government’s explanations concerning the way in which ‘Little Rus” was taken under tsarist rule (247-48); the exclusion of Cossackdom from urban affairs (248-50); a blow to Ukrainian statehood (250).
Confirmation of the clergy’s rights—the metropolitan’s conference with Cossack officers in Chyhyryn in May concerning relations with Muscovy (251-52); the issue of subordination to'the patriarch of Moscow (252-53); the laxness of Cossack circles with respect to this question and the firm position of the clergy (253-54); the monk Rafail’s denunciation of the metropolitan (254-55); Makarii Krynytsky’s subsequent arrest (255); the hetman’s recommendations for the clerical delegates—a chronological register of documents (252-54); the hetman’s letters to the tsar and the patriarch (255-56); Vyhovsky’s efforts on behalf of the Brotherhood Monastery and school (256-57); the metropolitan’s supplication (257-58); the postulate of ecclesiastical autonomy (258-59); the bypassing of the secular clergy (259-60). The clerical delegation before the tsar (260). Inokentii Gizel’s petition to the tsar (260-61). The issue of recovering church lands from the Cossacks (261-62). The tsar’s missives of 11/21 July to the clergy (262-64).
General summaries of the agreement (264-65); the de facto fullness of Ukrainian statehood (265-66); constitutional assessments of Ukrainian-Muscovite relations (266); Muscovy’s tendencies (267); tactical errors of the Cossack officers (267); differences between the two parties concerning further plans (267).
VIII. Military Operations and the Diplomatic Negotiations of 1654. - 268
Poland’s attempts to reclaim Ukraine—the Warsaw meetings to discuss the consequences of the Pereiaslav act (269-70); the struggle with the opposition paralyzes the government’s energies (270); the king’s proclamations to the Ukrainian population (270-71); mobilization and the offensive in Podilia (271-72); the offensive in the Siverian region and Volhynia (272). The Easter raid on the Bratslav region (274-75); the Crown hetman’s march to Pryluka (276); the attack ori Busha (276-77); the offensive against Bratslav and Vinnytsia (278); the march on Uman (279); an unsuccessful assault (280); the retreat toward Bratslav to Krasne (281). Alarm in Ukraine (282); Polish dissatisfaction with the campaign (283); plans for peace by way of intrigue (284-85); Khmelnytsky’s negotiations with Janusz Radziwiłł through Antin Zhdanovych and his associates (285); Ivan Iakymovych’s mission (285-86).
Diplomatic relations during the spring and summer of 1654: measures in the Crimea (287-88); Semen Savych’s diplomatic mission (288-89); the hetman’s letter of 16 April [O.S.] (290); a letter to the vizier (291); the khan demands a breach with Muscovy (291-92); the hetman demands the khan’s assistance against Poland (292); Mariusz Jaskólski’s mission (293). The attitude of the Porte (293); a Cossack mission visits the sultan (294-95); a Turkish mission visits the hetman (295); directives to the khan (295); the khan’s mission to the hetman (297-98); an audience with the hetman on 9/19 May (298); the khan’s demands (298); prospects of a campaign against Muscovy (299); dangerous consequences for Cossackdom as a result of its alliance with Muscovy (300). Muscovite designs on the Romanian principalities (300-301); Gavriil Samarin’s mission (301-2); the hypocritical policy of Hospodar Stefan (301-2); the mission of the secretary Tomila Porfiriev to Khmelnytsky in this matter (303). The policy of thfe Wallachian hospodar (304). The renewal of diplomatic relations between Ukraine and Gyorgy Rakóczi (304—5); Râkôczi’s policy—his mission to the Diet and negotiations with Janusz Radziwiłł in April (305-6).
The Muscovite offensive against Poland: preparations and the plan of operations, spring 1654 (306-7); Stanisław Puzilewicz’s mission from the Polish magnates to the Muscovite boyars (307); the Muscovite reply (308); an appeal to the Belarusian populace (308-9). Zolotarenko’s campaign in Belarus (309); the plan of operations (310); changes of orders (310-11); the mission of the undersecretary Grigorii Starkov to the hetman in this matter (311); the tsar’s departure on campaign (311); the attestation of the tsar’s favor to the hetman (311); the termination of the inventory of revenues (311); the delivery of gold to the Host with Petr Protasiev (312-13); demands for a register (315); Starkov visits the hetman on 10-12/20-22 June (315-16); information collected by Starkov (317); the first Swedish mission to the hetman (318); the Swedish declaration and the hetman’s reply (318). The hetman in Kyiv—a conference with the voevoda Andrei Buturlin (320); a letter of 1/10 July [O.S.] to the tsar delivered by Kyrylo Iakymenko (320-21); Lukian Sukhynia’s mission to the Don Cossacks (322). The death of the khan (322); a diplomatic mission to the Crimea and Istanbul (323). Miron Ciogolea’s mission from the Moldavian hospodar (324); the Wallachian diplomatic mission (325-26).
Ukrainian-Muscovite cooperation—summer/autumn 1654: the tsar’s gold in the Host (326); problems with its distribution (327-28); fears concerning the register (328-29); Matvii Polozhny’s mission (328-29). The hetman’s account of August 1654 (330); Cossack raids and sea campaigns (330-31). Operations in Belarus (331-32); Ivan Zolotarenko and his staff (332); their tactics (332); the expansion of Cossack territory (332-33); the capture of Homel, Chachersk, and Novy Bykhaü (335); competition with Kanstantsin Paklonski (335-36); Maksym Fylymonovych warns the residents of Mahilioü against Muscovy (337-38); recruitment to the Cossack Host (338); Zolotarenko’s demands (339). The hetman is ordered to march to Lutsk (340); the hetman in Kyiv in August 1654 (341); Ioannes Taflari’s news of the metropolitan’s relations with the king (342-43); Stroiescu Lupu’s mission (344). Ivan Rzhevsky’s mission (343-44); the hetman delays the march to Lutsk (344—45); Rzhevsky persuades him (345); information gathered by Rzhevsky (345-47); Moldavia, the Wallachians, the ‘Serbian captains of the Wallachian land’ (347-48); the Don Cossacks’ sea campaigns (348); the hetman’s letter of 4 September [N.S.] to the tsar (349). Danylo Vyhovsky’s diplomatic mission (350); the tsar’s grants to the Vyhovsky family (351).
The hetman’s Volhynian campaign with Andrei Buturlin—the march to Berdychiv (352); an account sent with Iakiv Somko on 15/25 September (352-53); the tsar’s approval of the campaign (353). Missions from Janusz Radziwiłł—Antin Zhdanovych and Hryhorii Kunytsky (354-55); the hetman sends Zhdanovych to the tsar (355-56); Zhdanovych’s orders (357-58); news from raiding parties (356); the plan for a sea campaign (358). Revolts and emigration—the hetman requests orders to the border voevodas not to accept the unruly but to turn them back (358-59). The hetman halts the march and returns to Bila Tserkva (359-60); the thoughtless orders of the tsar’s general staff (359-60); Iatsko Klysha’s mission—accounts of 22 October [N.S.] (360-61). The mission to György Rakóczi (361). A mission from the new khan (361); his ultimatum to the hetman should he not abandon Muscovy (362); the hetman’s reply of 29 October O.S. from Korsun (362-63); prospects of war with the Crimea (363-64); Bohdan Kondratenko’s mission to the tsar concerning assistance against the Tatars (363-64); the raid of the Bratslav regiment and the expedition up the Prypiat River (364). Instructions to Bohdan Kondratenko and his associates (365). Lukian Sukhynia’s second mission to the Don region (365-66).
The conclusion of a year of operations in Belarus—the tsar’s missive of 14/24 October delivered by Somko (366); an explanation of why Aleksei Trubetskoi did not march on Lutsk (366). Zolotarenko at the tsar’s headquarters (366-67); his wishes (367); the granting of Baturyn to him and the confirmation of rights of the town of Nizhen (368); Maksym Fylymonovych’s speech to the tsar in connection with the liberation of Little Rus' from the Poles (368-69); the tsar’s circular to the Cossacks (369); additional requests, for salt, among others (370); an illustration of economic complications resulting from political complications (370).
IX. A Panorama of Seventeenth-Century Ukraine. The Demise of the Bratslav Region. The Dryzhypil Campaign and Its Epilogue (January-June 1655). - 371
The journey of Makarios, the patriarch of Antioch, through Ukraine in 1654 and 1656, as described by his sort, the archdeacon Paul (371-72); manuscripts and publications (372-73); impressions of Ukraine (373); the pathos of liberation as reflected in Paul’s accounts (374-75). What Paul heard in Ukraine about its liberation (375); Liakh slavery (376-77); the liberation struggle (377); the bloody victims of Ukraine (378); masses of widows and orphans (378-79); demographic energy (380); prosperity and good economic management (380-81); enthusiastic comments about Cossackdom (381-82); cultural energy (382); construction (383); private residences (384); the wealth of the population (385-86); orchards (386); agriculture (386-88); the rich water resources amaze the Arab (388); the modesty and restraint of daily life (389-90); strictness and asceticism in carrying out religious rituals (391); the excessive length of divine services in monasteries (391).
A panorama of places: the hetman’s headquarters in Bohuslav (392-93); a description of the hetman (393); the patriarch visits the hetman (393-94). Kyivan impressions—their one-sidedness (394); the road from Vasylkiv across the Caves Monastery’s estates (395); the Caves Monastery’s properties (395-96); the Caves Monastery and its brethren (396); the ceremony of welcome and the refectory (396-97); Kyivan art (397); the archimandrite’s cells, the bell towers, the caves (398); the women’s monastery (398-99); the Caves Monastery’s printshop (399). The metropolitan’s visit, the servants of the metropolitan and the Caves Monastery (399-400); a solemn liturgy on the Feast of SS. Peter and Paul—details of daily life (400-402); St. Sophia (401-2). A meeting with Daniel Kaluger (402). Comments on contemporary Kyivan painting (402-3). St. Michael’s Monastery and the Muscovite fortress (403). ‘The city of Kyiv’—the Podil; the Dnipro River and trade (404). Letters of absolution (405). Portraits of patriarchs who visited Kyiv (405). St. Nicholas’s Pustyn Monastery (406). The Vydubychi Monastery (406-7).
Other towns of Ukraine: Uman, Bohuslav, Trypilia (407-9). Pryluka, the pond and the bathhouse (409-10). The Hustynia Trinity Monastery (410); the monks’ regime (411-12); the monastery’s all-night vigil (412). The market in Pryluka (413). Pereiaslav (413-14); Chyhyryn (414); the hetman’s residence (414-15); the court at Subotiv (415); the tomb of Tymish (415); his widow (415).
Some information from the Muscovite census of 1654: Bila Tserkva, Stavyshche, Lisovychi, Boiarka, Fastiv (415-16); Borzna, Bakhmach, Konotip, Baturyn, Sosnytsia, Mena (417-18); Novhorod-Siverskyi, Starodub (418-19).
The demise of the Bratslav region: the Polish advance on Ukraine in October 1654 (419); Polish forces (419); the assembly at Sharhorod (420); the siege of Busha—Kochowski’s account (420-21); Czarniecki’s report (421); the capitulation of Tymonivka (422); the advance on Bratslav (422-23); the arrival of advance Tatar troops (423); battles at Bratslav (424); the departure of the Cossacks from Bratslav (424); Mengli Giray requests a suspension of operations (424); the king recalls Potocki (424-25); his report to the king (425). The Christmas recess (425). The Polish court informs diplomatic representatives that the Bratslav region has been conquered (426).
The passivity of the hetman’s milieu (427); its information (427); information given to the envoy Denis Turgenev (427); Turgenev in Chyhyryn on 14 November N.S. (427); conversations with Vyhovsky (427); an audience with the hetman (427). Relations with the Moldavian and Wallachian hospodars and with György Rakóczi (428); the diplomatic missions of Demko Lysovets and Ivan Krekhovetsky (428); the hetman recalls how he was left in the lurch by Aleksei Trubetskoi’s forces (428); Turgenev describes Ivan Zolotarenko’s arrival as a reminder to the hetman (428); the dispatch of Kutlumamet Ustokasimov to the Crimea (428); the hetman’s letter of 10/20 November to the tsar (429-30).
The hetman’s departure for Korsun and Bila Tserkva (430-31); the long wait with Andrei Buturlin in Bila Tserkva (431); Roman Andriienko’s mission to the tsar to hasten Vasilii Sheremetiev’s arrival (431); the hetman’s letters to Sheremetiev informing him of the Polish offensive and urging Fedor Buturlin to arrive quickly with help (431-33). Antin Zhdanovych delivers a letter from the tsar with assurances that Sheremetiev has been given an order, but compensation from the Cossack Host is desired (434-35). The mission of Artamon Matveev and Iakiv Klysha in these matters (435); an audience on 6/16 January (436); the hetman’s dissatisfaction with Sheremetiev’s delay (437); plans for a spring offensive against Poland and the Crimea (437); the hetman is reproached for permitting the destruction of the Bratslav region (438-39). The tsar wishes to make Kyiv his capital in order to improve Ukraine’s defenses against the Porte (439). Muscovite plans for intervention in Balkan affairs (440). Plans to organize regiments of soldiers in Ukraine and post tsarist voevodas in the towns (440-41); comments on the clergy’s disloyal conduct (441-42). Sheremetiev’s arrival and the discharge"bf Matveev (442).
The Dryzhypil campaign: Polish operations at the beginning of the new year (443); Dymitr Wiśniowiecki’s punitive expedition to the Bershad group of estates (443-44); the populace assembles for defense in Demkivka (444); Teteria’s band,(445-46); the siege and capture of Demkivka (446); the massacre and flight of the populace ‘to the Dnipro River’ and Moldavia (447). The arrival of advance troops of the Horde with Khan Mehmed Mirza and Mengli Giray (447); a council of war in Obodivka (447-48); the lack of information about Khmelnytsky (449). The march on Uman (449); preliminary reconnaissance near the city (450); news of Khmelnytsky’s approach (450); the march to encounter him—Khmelnytsky at Okhmativ (451); the siege of Okhmativ (451); the Cossack army at Dryzhypil (451); the battles of 29-30 January N.S. (452-54); discrepancies in assessments of the result—Czarniecki’s comment (454); the account of the Eyewitness (454-55); the blockade of the Cossack camp (455); the Cossack Host’s defensive retreat (455); the Tatars’ abstention (455); the Battle of Okhmativ (456); Khmelnytsky retreats (456); the emigration of the populace (456); ‘the Cossacks of Dryzhypil’ beyond the Muscovite border (456-57).
The final destruction of the Bratslav region: Stanisław Potocki returns home, relinquishing the Command to Stanisław Lanckoroński (457). War plans—the project for the devastation of the Kyiv region (457-58); the Tatars postpone a further march (458). The arrival of the main horde not to wage war but to feed itself and capture booty (459). The devastation of the Bratslav region (459-60); the gathering of captives for the Tatars (458-59); Lanckoroński’s report (460-62). Krzysztof Tyszkiewicz’s command and his reports (462-63); the main horde departs (463); problems with those who remain (463-64); provisioning and gathering of captives (465-67); the Polish army disperses (467); summons to the Tatars for a new war (468); assessments of the campaign by contemporaries and in more recent historiography (468-69).
The policy of the Ukrainian government—its strange passivity and delay (469-70); the concealment of losses sustained—an account by Paul of Aleppo (470). Cossack armies occupy the zone abandoned by the Poles (470); a diversion toward Tatar and Turkish domains (471). Diplomatic relations—exchanges with Rakóczi (471); the attitude of the Porte—its possible influence on the Horde’s retreat (472); measures adopted by the Porte to settle relations between Ukraine and the Crimea (473); a Cossack mission to Istanbul (473-74); measures adopted by Crimean friends of Ukraine—Qarash Bey’s letter to the hetman (475). The blockade of the Crimea (477). Plans for an offensive against Poland—a report to the tsar from Bohuslav on 4 March N.S. (477-78). Makar Moskalenko’s mission (479); the diplomatic missions of lasko Iakovenko and Osyp Tomylenko (479-80); plans for a Kalmyk offensive against the Crimea and for a complete blockade of the Crimea (481); the tsar’s consent to these operations and the dispatch of new forces to Ukraine (481-82). Vasyl Klymiatenko’s mission—the hetman’s letter of 2 April O.S. (483-84).
Ukrainian-Muscovite differences and Polish blandishments: Krzysztof Tyszkiewicz’s letter to the hetman (484-85); a diplomatic mission from Rakóczi—Istvân Lucs (485). The situation on the Polish-Ukrainian front in April—statements of captives and envoys (485-86); envoys of the Wallachian rebels visit the hetman (487-88); Muscovy does not allow Daniel Kaluger passage from Sweden to visit the hetman (488-89); Kaluger reaches him nevertheless (489). The king of Sweden declares war on Poland (489); Kindrat Burlii’s mission (489); the tsar does not allow him passage to Sweden (490). Tensions in Belarus (491); Kanstantsin Paklonski abandons the Muscovites (492); his letters to the Cossacks (492-93); letters from Janusz Radziwiłł (493-94); Teodosii Vasylevych’s agitation (494-96). Alarm in Moscow—the tsar demands that the metropolitan be sent to him (496); conferences in Kyiv with the metropolitan and a council in Korsun (496-98); letters from the hetman and Vyhovsky to Ivan Zolotarenko (498-99). The arrival of Vasilii Buturlin (499); a meeting in Kyiv (499-500); the armies join forces at Bila Tserkva (500-501); the westward march on 1/11 July (501).
3. A Report from Istanbul Transmitted by the Polish Commissioners to the Muscovite Envoys during the Lviv Negotiations of 1653. - 502
4. The Polish Government’s Reply to the Muscovite Ambassadors on the Ukrainian Question, Presented on 9 August 1653 O.S.. - 503
5. The Tsar Declares War on Poland, 31 December 1653 O.S.. - 515
Instructions to Vasilii Buturlin. - 519
Bohun’s oath. - 520
The activities of Daniel the Greek. - 520
* * * Bibliography. - 521
Abbreviations. - 521
Unpublished Sources . - 521
Published Sources. - 522
Secondary Literature. - 525
Tables of Hetmans and Rulers. - 529
Translations and Publications Consulted. - 536
Index. - 527
Sysyn, Frank E. (editor in chief)
Plokhy, Serhii (deputy editor)
Pasicznyk, Uliana M. (managing editor)
Yurkevich, Myroslav (senior editor)
Stech, Marko R. (project manager)
Horban–Carynnyk, Marta (associate editor)
Hornjatkevyč, Andrij (assistant editor)
Bednarsky, Dushan (assistant editor)
Plawuszczak–Stech, Tania (technical editor)
Plokhii, Olena (technical editor)
Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies
The Peter Jacyk Centre for Ukrainian Historical Research