History of Ukraine-Rus'. Vol. 6 : Economic, Cultural, and National Life in the Fourteenth to Seventeenth Centuries (2012) (^AHrushevsky^BM.^GMykhailo ^RГрушевський Михайло Сергійович, ^4340 Editor in Chief^ASysyn^BF. E. ^GFrank E. ^RСисин Франк, ^4340 Deputy Editor^APlokhy^BS.^GSerhii^RПлохій Сергій, ^4340 Managing Editor^APasicznyk^BU. M.^GUliana M., ^4340 Senior Editor^AYurkevich^BM.^GMyroslav^RЮркевич Мирослав, ^4340 Project Manager^AStech^BM. R.^GMarko R., ^4340 Associate Editor^AHorban–Carynnyk^BM.^GMarta, ^4340 Assistant Editor^AHornjatkevyč^BA.^GAndrij, ^4340 Assistant Editor^ABednarsky^BD.^GDushan, ^4340 Technical Editor^APlawuszczak–Stech^BT.^GTania)
History of Ukraine-Rus' : vols. 1–10 (in 12 books) / M. Hrushevsky. - . - Edmonton, Toronto : Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press, 1997–.. - (The Hrushevsky Translation Project). - Translation of: Istoriia Ukraïny-Rusy. - Translators and editors vary. - Includes bibliographical references and indexes. - Пер.загл. : Історія України-Руси Vol. 6 : Economic, Cultural, and National Life in the Fourteenth to Seventeenth Centuries / M. Hrushevsky; Translated by Leonid Heretz; Edited by Myron M. Kapral, Consulting Editor, and Frank E. Sysyn, Editor in Chief, with the assistance of Uliana M. Pasicznyk. – Edmonton, Toronto : Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press, 2012. – lxv, , 619 p. : il. – ISBN 1-895571-22-7 (set). – 978-1-894865-25-8 (v. 6).
The preparation of volume six of Mykhailo Hmshevsky's History of Ukraine-Rus ' has been funded by a generous donation from Dr. Jeanette Bayduza and the late Dr. Peter Jacyk.
Підготування шостого тому англомовного видання Історії України-Руси Михайла Грушевського здійснено завдяки щедрому дарові д-р Жанет Байдужої та бл. п. д-ра Петра Яцика.
The publication of volume 6 of the History of Ukraine Rus ' has been funded by a generous donation from the estate of Edward Brodacky (1926-2007), who settled in London, England, after the Second World War.
Друк шостого тому Історії України-Руси здійснено завдяки щедрому дарові із спадку Едварда Бродацького (1926-2007), який після Другої Світової Війни оселився у Лондоні, Великобританія.
The Peter Jacyk Centre for Ukrainian Historical Research was established at the Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies, University of Alberta, in 1989. The Centre was endowed by Peter Jacyk of Toronto, who requested that the Centre undertake the translation of Mykhailo Hrushevsky’s Istoriia Ukraïny-Rusy (History ofUkraine-Rus'). Mr. Jacyk was an enthusiastic and dedicated supporter of the Hrushevsky Translation Project, and the Petro Jacyk Educational Foundation continues his commitment and legacy of support. The Project has also received support from the Canadian Foundation for Ukrainian Studies. Individual benefactors have undertaken the sponsorship of particular volumes. Numerous individual donors have also contributed to the funding of the Hrushevsky Translation Project.
* * *
Volume 6 of Mykhailo Hrushevsky’s History of Ukraine-Rus' focuses on life in Ukraine before the Cossack age of seventeenth century. The volume bears the broadly inclusive and telling subtitle of Economic, Cultural, and National Life in the 14th to 17th Centuries. It depicts life in Ukraine during the transitional Lithuanian-Polish period of its history. Presented here are the master historian’s discussion and analysis of economic life, society, political affairs, everyday life, culture, church history, interethnic relations, and national identity in the Ukrainian lands during that time.
The volume opens with an account of trade, manufacture, and agriculture in the lands of western Ukraine and the initially less settled lands of central and eastern Ukraine. Relying on a wealth of sources, including statistical and other data, Hrushevsky thoroughly examines the rural economy, tracing developments in agricultural practice and husbandry from Old Rus' times to the expanded grain production, increased corvée, and exhaustive use of natural resources in the late fifteenth and subsequent centuries. He discusses the composition of Ukraine’s population and its cultural and national interrelations, with attention to the peasantry, the burgher stratum, the clerical order, the nobility, and the highest echelon of society, the magnates. Hrushevsky’s depiction of everyday life includes in-depth information about cultural, religious, and national traditions, education, book and literary production, and artistic creativity. His analysis of social values and norms uses sources ranging from individuals’ wills to contemporary accounts of daily life to the religious works of the ascetic Ivan Vyshensky. Topics also treated in depth include the religious lay brotherhoods and the guild system.
The latter part of the volume focuses on the origins and development of the ideological, religio-national, and political struggle within the Orthodox Church for and against church union. It includes discussion of the roles of the Catholic Church and the Lithuanian, Polish, and (after 1569) Commonwealth governments. Also discussed are the literary polemics that shaped the struggle over the Union of Brest (1596), including the works of Ipatii Potii, Stefan Zyzanii, and Meletii Smotrytsky. The volume relates the course of the struggle to the first decades of the seventeenth century, when the new phenomenon of Cossackdom was coming to the fore in Ukrainian affairs. Hrushevsky’s own bibliographical Notes have been amplified by editor’s additions of major works published subsequently. The editorial apparatus also includes a glossary, two maps, a bibliography of works cited by Hrushevsky, two appendixes, and a comprehensive index.
The preparation of this volume for publication was funded by a generous donation from Dr. Jeanette Bayduza and the late Dr. Peter Jacyk, founding donor of the Peter Jacyk Centre for Ukrainian Historical Research. Additional support was provided from the estate of the late Edward Brodacky of London, England, and by individual donors.
Volume 6 was translated by Leonid Heretz, professor of history at Bridgewater State University and a noted specialist of modern Ukrainian history. Dr. Frank E. Sysyn, director of the Jacyk Centre, edited the volume, assisted by Uliana M. Pasicznyk, managing editor. Consulting editor was Myron M. Kapral, director of the Lviv branch of the M. S. Hrushevsky Institute of Ukrainian Archeography and Source Studies and professor of history at the Ivan Franko National University of Lviv.
Cover illustration: SS. Cosmas and Damian with a Life (history) – central icon of the SS. Cosmas and Damian Church in Iablunets Ruskyi. Photo courtesy of the Sanok Museum of Folk Architecture
Back cover: An illumination of St. Luke the Evangelist, Peresopnytsia Gospel (1556–61). Photo courtesy of the Institute of Manuscripts, Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine (Kyiv)
Editorial Preface to the Hrushevsky Translation Project. - xvii
Editorial Preface to Volume 6. - xix
Introduction: The ‘Transitional Period’: Hrushevsky’s Interpretation of the Lithuanian-Polish Era in Ukrainian History / Myron M. Kapral. - xxvii
Glossary. - lx
Maps. - lxix
A Note from the Author. - lxxii
* * * I. Economic Life: Trade and Urban Manufacture. - 1–108
Introductory remarks (1), the decline of urban life in the eleventh and twelfth centuries (2).
Trade in eastern Ukraine in the thirteenth to sixteenth centuries:
The decline in trade in the thirteenth century (2) and the diminution of its geographical range (3), the decline of Kyiv as a city (4), the passivity of Kyiv’s trade (5), trade with the Black Sea region (6), caravans (5-6) and caravan routes—the Perekop route (7) and others (7-8), compulsory roads (8), the volume of trade along the Dnipro in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries (9-10), trade with Muscovy (10), its main arteries (11) and objects (11-12), Muscovite and Turkish goods (12-13), the participation of the local population in this trade (13), the trade in salt ( 14) and agricultural goods ( 15), the slave trade ( 16), the chief markets (16), and the demand for Ukrainian slaves (16-17).
Trade in western Ukraine in the thirteenth to sixteenth centuries:
The earliest records (18), trade with western Europe (18), the Oriental and Byzantine trade (19), beyond the Dnister and the Galician-Black Sea route (20), relations with the Baltic coast (21), the Prussian and Flemish trade (21), the Wrocław and Cracow trade (22), the policy of Casimir Jagiellończyk (23), efforts of the merchants of Cracow to shut down Ruthenian trade (24), the Prussian-Lithuanian route (24), trade routes from Prussia to Volhynia and Galicia (25), goods traded (25-26), the closing of borders in the reigns of Louis and Jogaila (27), the decline in Prussia’s trade with Volodymyr and Lviv (28), the development of Cracow’s trade in Ukraine (28-29), competition from Wrocław (29), disputes of the fifteenth century (30). Lviv’s efforts to gain a monopoly over the southern trade (30-31), the court case with Cracow (31), the Lviv staple right for the towns of Galicia (32) and Podilia (33), the Galician road system (33-34). Podilian trade (34), Podilian trade routes (34), Lviv’s legal claims (35-36). Volhynian trade—the decline of Volodymyr (36-37), the Lutsk staple (37), the Volhynian and Polisian roads (38), the volume of trade in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries (39), the government’s regulation of the roads to the West (40), and changes in these routes in the sixteenth century (40-41), relations with the West: Lublin and Poznań (41), the Prussian trade (42), the artery along the Buh (42-43). The Eastern trade: earliest information on trade with the Crimea (44), the ‘Tatar Road’ (44), the Moldavian Road (45), trade with Moldavia in the fifteenth century (45-46) and its objects (46-47), relations with the Italian trading centers (47), the Bilhorod trade (48), the Turkish trade (49), the goods exchanged (49-50), west European commodities—cloth (50-51), other manufactured goods and products (51-52), Turkish and Muscovite goods subject to Podlachian tariffs (53), the trade in wine (54), other Oriental goods (54), and Moldavian commodities (54-55).
The organization o f trade:
General conditions (56), the regulation of trade (56), monopolies (57), toll obligations and trading fees (58-59), the weakening of commercial traffic (60), the privileges of the nobility (60-61 ), privileged cities (62). The burghers’ unresourcefulness (62-63) and the loss of the old transit trade (63), the growth in trade in agricultural goods (63), the nobility’s competition with and hostility toward the cities (64-65), the growth in prices and the nobility’s efforts to counter this (66), price-fixing and restrictions placed on the merchants (66-67), efforts to close the borders (67), the Piotrków resolutions of 1565 (68) and the harm they caused cities (69), partial closings (69-70). Fairs—governmental grants (70), regulation (71), the benefits and detriments of holding fairs (72-73), advantages granted to the fairs (74), western Ukraine’s major fairs: laroslav (74), Krosno and Sianik (75), Lviv (76), Sniatyn and Kamianets (76-77), smaller fairs in Galicia (77), fairs of Volhynia (78-79). Weekly fairs (79), goods traded there (80), the trade in meat (81 ). Regular town trade: stall-keepers and stalls (82), stall trade items (82-83), tavern-keeping and the trade in drink (83).
The organization of crafts:
The corporate system of the Middle Ages (84), the origins of guilds in Ukraine (84-85), the guild system (85), its moralistic character (86), the protection of material interests (87), the organization of craft training (88), the typical guild statute in western Ukraine in the sixteenth century and its dissemination (88-89), example of a guild statute from the Dnipro region in the seventeenth century (89-90). The degeneration of the guilds (91), the lack of competition (92), guild exclusivity and protection of members (92-93), persecution of non-guild craftsmen (94), the decline of guild life (95), the institution of the lodge and brotherhoods of journeymen (95). Religio-national exclusivity and impediments for Ruthenians (96-97), the situation of the Jews (97-98). The nobility’s hostile policy toward the guilds (98), the abolition of guilds (99), competition from craftsmen subject to the starostas (100) and in the residences of the nobility (101), local goods versus imports (101-2). The condition of urban industry: guilds in Lviv in the fifteenth century ( 102), in Lutsk ( 103), Kremianets, Volodymyr, Belz, Kyiv, Kholm, Krasnostav ( 104-5), and smaller cities and towns (105-6).
An overview of the decline of urban economic life (106-7), and the difficult conditions for the Ukrainian element (107), its impoverishment and decline (108).
II. The Rural Economy. - 109–184
The old economy and its surviving elements:
The trade in agricultural goods in Old Rus’ (109), its objects (109-10), the lack of demand for agricultural products in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and its symptoms (110-11), the character of the old economy (111), and its surviving elements in Volhynianand Kyivan Polisia (111-12), the old agricultural economy in Volhynia in the fifteenth century (112-13) and its remnants in the sixteenth (114), service villages (114-15) and other surviving elements (116); characteristics of the old economy of Galicia in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries (117), and elements surviving in the sixteenth—hunting and beekeeping (118-19), remnants of old obligations ( 119-20), tribute in oats ( 120-21 ), Wallachian-law economy ( 122), animal husbandry (123), and its degeneration (123). The manorial economy of western Ukraine in the first half of the sixteenth century—examples of it: the royal domain of Sianik (123-24), Liubachiv and Drohobych (125), Rohatyn (126). A general picture of the old economy—agriculture (126-27), hunting,fishing, beekeeping, animal husbandry (127-28); the Lithuanian Statute as an illustration of the old economy (128-29), the protection of hunting (129) and the feebleness of the manorial economy (130); agriculture’s relatively greater development in Galicia (131); normal directions of development and its perturbations (131).
The growth in exports o f rural products in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries:
Stages in the development of the export trade ( 132). The export of furs (132). The export of wax and honey (133-34). The export of livestock (134), herds of oxen (135) and statistics for them from castle customs records ( 136-37), customs relief granted for herds belonging to the nobility (137), some statistical data from the early seventeenth century (137-38). The export of fish: the trade in fish (139), salting of fish (140), ponds and their exploitation ( 141-42). The export of forest products ( 142-43), the Gdańsk lumber market (143), prices for lumber in our country and abroad (144), the production of forest products—information from the royal domains of Liuboml (144) and Ratno (145), the destruction of forests (145-46), the attempt to establish a state monopoly in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (147), its abolition (147-48), the production of forest products in eastern Ukraine (148), the destruction of forests (149).
The export in grain and its effects:
The growth in demand ( 150), the Gdańsk market ( 150), the radius of its demand ( 151 ), the growth in export from Ukrainian territory—in the basins of the Buh and Sian (152-53), in Volhynia (153-54), the rise in prices (155), and the growth of agriculture for export (155), the growth of the manorial economy and the expansion of its territory (156-57), the expropriation of peasant land (158) and the diminution of peasant holdings (158-59), the increase in the number of land-poor households (160), cottagers in the Peremyshl and Sianik regions ( 160-61 ) and in the royal domain of Lviv ( 161 ), the growth of corvée ( 162), ‘novelties’ (163); the expropriation of peasant lands on private estates (164); the proletarianization of the peasants in the central (164-65) and eastern (166) lands.
Forms o f industry connected to the rural economy:
The production of salt ( 166-67), its techniques ( 167-68), labor hired ( 168) and corvée ( 169), the quantity of production (169), the radius of distribution (170). Ironworks (171-72). Saltpeter mounds and grounds (172). Foundries and paper mills (172-73). The milling industry (173-74) and compulsory milling (174), water mills and sawmills (175-76), forms of large-scale milling (176). Brewing beer (177), peasant beerbrewing and its restriction (177); the fermentation of mead (178), the distillation of vodka (179); the significance of these industries for the economy overall (180). General observations (181), the irrational way in which the seignorial economy functioned (181), Poland’s balance of trade (182), excessive export (183), and the depletion of natural resources (183-84).
III. Cultural and National Relations: The Population’s National Composition and National Elements. - 185–230
The weakening of the Ukrainian element in Galicia (185), the influx of foreign nobility (185-86), Ukrainian noble families in the fifteenth century (186), and their denationalization (187), the Ukrainian nobility of Galicia in the sixteenth century (188), the petty nobility (189), its poverty and lack of influence (190), national movements among the nobility—the Moldavian irredenta of the sixteenth century (191), the struggle against the Union (192), developments during the time of Khmelnytsky (192-93). The nobility of the Kingdom of Poland’s Buh region (193-94), its polonization (194), Polish law and the Polish language in Podlachia (195). The nobility in Podilia (196), Polish and Ukrainian elements (196-97), the Ukrainian noble families of the sixteenth century (197) and their decline in western Podilia (198), the Ukrainian petty nobility in eastern Podilia (199-200). The burgher stratum—the influx of privileged elements (200), German colonies (201), the condition of the Ukrainian element, examples: Krasnostav (201 ), Horodok (202), Drohobych (203), the curtailment of the rights of the Ukrainian element (204), the organization of Ukrainian burgherdom (205), the participation of burghers in anti-Polish movements (205), manifestations of attachment to one’s nationality among the burghers (206). The clergy (207). The higher strata of the peasantry (207-8). The national composition of the peasantry—examples from the Sianik region (208-9), the Peremyshl region (210), the Buh region (211), Podilia (211-12); manifestations of civic and national consciousness (212), mass movements: Mukha’s rebellion (213), its character (214), later movements (214).
Central and eastern Ukraine:
Obstacles to the influx of foreign elements (214). The influx of foreign elements into the burgher order (215); the national status of the cities—examples (215-16), Polish elements among the Volhynian nobility (216), the natives’ resistance (217-18), the denationalization of the nobility (219). The immigration of Polish elements to the Kyiv and Bratslav regions (219), Polish holders of latifundia in the Kyiv region (220), Ukrainian magnates (220-21), the Ukrainian petty nobility in Polisia (222), the Bratslav landed gentry (221), its national patriotism (223). The Trans-Dnipro region (223-24), occupation of the frontier lands (224), the formation of latifundia (224-25). The Siverian region (226). The national significance of the eastern Ukrainian latifundia (227). The burgher order (228). The peasantry (228-89), Polish theories about immigration (229), the actual character of the villages—examples (230).
IV. Everyday Life and Culure. - 231–320
Religious and national traditions:
National and religious feeling—the mingling of these attitudes (231 ), their evolution (231-32), religion’s transformation into a national characteristic (232), ethnic and political antagonism on the western front (233), religious antagonism (234), the effect of restrictions under Polish rule (235), the ‘Ruthenian faith’ becomes a national banner (236), religion as the emblem of national and social struggle (236). The religious element in life (236-37), its weakening in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (237); guardianship of the church in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (238-39), ecclesiastical foundations of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries (239), endowments for churches (240-41), offerings for the repose of souls (241-42),inscriptions in the diptychs (242), monastic tonsures (243-44). Three testaments as an illustration of a religious and moral worldview and general view of life in the sixteenth century (244), their authors’ feeble political interests (244), the insurance of material interests (245), practicality and idealism (246), family relations (246-47), the right to divorce (247), the property rights of women (248), illustrations of family ties in testaments (249), the raising and education of children (250-51), religious concerns (251), ecclesiastical endowments (252), technical details (253), church and hospital (253-54), deacon and school (254), maintenance of clerics (254-55), relations toward subjects and servants (255-56), social and politicalattitudes (256).
The decline of the church (257) and the weakening of its cultural significance (257-58), the hapless condition of Ruthenian culture (259), contemptuous remarks about schooling (259), its low level (259-60), the views of progressive Ukrainians (260), the spread of elementary schools (261), their organization and instruction (261-62), home instruction (263), Ukrainians in foreign schools (264). Book culture (264-65), the supply of books—the catalog of the Supraśl library (265-66), theological literature (267), moralistic and historical literature (267-68), the Old Rus1 book tradition (268), later additions (269), original writings (269) and translations (270), the insignificant number of Western borrowings (271-72). Work in editing and compiling (272), hagiographie compilations (273), polemical compilations (273), historical compilations (274-75); stagnation in literature (275), literary devices (276) and the decline in creativity (276), examples of literary style (277), passive conservatism (278). Non-ecclesiastical literature—the cycle of Lithuanian-Ruthenian Chronicles (278-79), redactions of the chronicles—the older (279), the intermediate (280) and the expansive (281), their style (282), the old Ruthenian literary tradition—the Supraśl Chronicle (282-83), examples of rhythmic language (284), ‘dumas’ (284), the influence of the Serbian heroic epic (285), the song about Stefan as a monument of creativity in song (285-86), religious verses (286); the formation of a new book language as a symptom of the decline in tradition (287-88). Artistic creativity—contraction in the sphere of native art (288-89), impediments to development and training (289), what is of interest in Ukrainian art of these centuries (289-90). Painting—the extent and influences of Ruthenian painting (290), its examples in Poland (291 ), Western influences—guilds (292) and guild exclusivity (293), non-guild influences (294), Western elements (295), the spread of Western influences to eastern Ukraine (295-96), examples of creativity (296). Stone architecture (296), currents within it (297), wood architecture (298)—its liveliness and heterogeneity (298-99). Woodcarving (299-300) and comments about it (300), decorative and iconographie carving (300); sculpture (300). Goldsmithing (301-2). Embroidery (302-3). Music and singing (303), information about musicians (304), music in the life of the people (304-5).
The ideological content of life (305), feeble social ideas (305), material interests (306), superficial displays of wealth and extravagant surroundings (307), examples from magnate and noble life (308-9). The enjoyment of life—its primitive materialism (310-11). Contemporaries’ complaints about capriciousness—Rej (311-12), Pseudo-Meleshko (313), Michael the Lithuanian (313-14); changes in everyday life (314), the superficiality of culture (315); Beauplan on Polish feasts (315-16); conservatism in Ukrainian society (316-17), Vyshensky on the new fashions (317-18), his denial of any idealistic content in contemporary life (318), examples of the lack of culture (318-19), the contrast between the paradise of the nobility and the hell of the peasantry (319), Vyshensky on the plight of the peasantry (319-20).
V. The Cultural and Religio-National Movement in Ukraine in the Sixteemtih Century. - 321–416
The cultural movement o f the sixteenth century and its reflections in Ukraine:
Poland’s lack of cultural predominance in previous centuries (321), the meager content of Polish cultural life in the fifteenth century (321-22), humanistic influences (322), the cultural movement of the midsixteenth century (323), the political movement among the nobility (324-25), Protestant currents (325), the movement’s superficiality and ostentatious aspects (325-26) and attractiveness for noble circles in Ukraine (326). The insignificance of Reformation influences on Ukraine (327), their exaggeration in historians’ views (327-28) and in contemporaries’ comments (328), the greater development of Protestant ideas in Belarus (329), Russian rationalists (329-30), references to the success of Protestantism (330), its reflections in Volhynia (331), efforts at popularizing literacy independent of Reformation ideas—translations of the fifteenth century (331-32), the activity of Skaryna (332), its independence from Protestantism (333), Skaryna’s supporters in Vilnius (333), the popularity of his translations in Ukraine (333-34), other analogous translations (334-35), Protestant translations (335), the activity of Tsiapinsky (335-36), .Nehalevsky (336), Smera’s letter (336-37), Orthodox polemical writings (337-38). The inertness of Ukrainian and Belarusian society (338), Tsiapinsky’s grievances (339). The Zabłudów printing press (339), Fedorov in Lviv (340), the beginnings of the Ostrih printing press (341); Kurbsky (342), his activity (342-43), his circle (343), literary ties and relations (344).
Denationalization in central and eastern Ukraine and the beginnings o f a cultural and national reaction:
Jesuit influences (344—45), Jesuit colleges: Vilnius (345-46), laroslav (346-47), Lublin, Niasvizh, Lviv(347-48), Lutsk, Kamianets (348), other colleges in Ukraine (349), Jesuit education (349-50), the school program (350), the manner of instruction (351), catholicization (352), the popularity of Jesuit schools in Ukraine (352), that schooling’s denationalizing effect (353). Jesuit preaching (353-54), its effects on the higher strata of society (354), demonstrations of the helpless situation of the Orthodox Church and Ruthenian culture: Skarga (354-55), Herbest (355-56), an awareness of impotency among the Orthodox—the evasion of polemics (356), the first polemical writings (357). The calendar issue: the reform of the calendar (358), the opposition of the patriarchate (358-59), acts of violence in Lviv and elsewhere in Galicia (359), the struggle of the Orthodox and the government’s capitulation (359-60), further polemics (360), the significance of this episode (361 ). The beginnings of the awakening of Ukrainian and Belarusian society (361); the danger posed by denationalization (362), representatives of contemporary society as depicted in Vyshensky’s writings (363). Old belief and progressive currents: Artemii and Kurbsky (363-64), Vyshensky as the spokesman for religious reaction (364), his war against worldly learning (365) and apotheosis of Orthodox simplicity (365-66), other manifestations of religious reaction (366), progressive currents—the views of the Warning (366-67), the conflict between these two currents (367), the progressives’ predominance (368), the message for national enlightenment and education (369-70).
The Ostrih Academy:
The paucity of information (370); the person of the patron—Prince Ostrozky (370), his character (371 ), lack of energy and initiative (371), passivity in religious and national matters (372), his unwillingness to be harsh or exclusive (372-73). The Ostrih school—the plans for a higher school and its inadequacy (373-74), the program (374-75), the Greek element (375-76), the school’s significance (376-77). The Ostrih circle, and the enthusiasm for it in Orthodox circles (377), its composition (377-78), chief representatives: Herasym Smotrytsky (379), his tract (379), his rhymes and verses (380), Vasyl of Surazh and his treatise (381), ‘Khrystofor Filalet Bronsky’ (382), the ‘Cleric of Ostrih’ (382). Other Ostrih publications (383), a register of Ukrainian imprints up to the year 1600 (382-84). The end of the Ostrih Academy (384-85).
The Lviv Brotherhood and the brotherhood movement:
The hopeless character of the magnate stratum (385), the cultural movement within the burgher order—the Lviv movement (385-86), the brotherhood as a form of organization among the Ukrainian and Belarusian burghers (386), the genesis of the brotherhoods (386-87), brotherhoods in Old Rus' times (387), the question of their Western influences and unique nature (387-88), their characteristics (388), mead brotherhoods and their prerogatives in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (388-89), influences of the guild system (389-90), examples of the composite structure of the brotherhoods of Vilnius (390), the Lvivbrotherhoods—statutes of the suburban brotherhoods (391), the structure of the local brotherhoods (391-92), their significance as forms of legal organization (392). The beginnings of the brotherhood movement—the significance of the Lviv Dormition Brotherhood (393), the revival of burgher life (394), the brotherhood’s plans—the printing press (395), plans for a school (395-96), the reform of the constitution (396), Patriarch Joachim and the privileges he granted the brotherhood (397-98), their rashness and excessive character (398), the successes of the brotherhood movement (398-99), the brotherhood school (399), its program (400), its augmentation with Latin studies (401) the successes of brotherhood education (401-2), Adelphotës and other testimonies to success (402), the more feeble activity of the printing press (403), lack of resources (403), the conflict with the bishop (403-4), confirmation of the Lviv Dormition Brotherhood’s rights by the patriarch of Constantinople (405), the bishop’s irritation and plans for church union (405), the effect of this on the brotherhood’s prestige (405-6). The spread of the brotherhood organization (406), plans for an all-national brotherhood organization (407-8), the brotherhood movement in Galicia—our data in chronological order: the Rohatyn Brotherhood (409), the Lviv Epiphany Brotherhood (409-10), the Horodok Brotherhood (410), the Brest Brotherhood (4ip—11) the Peremyshl Brotherhood (411), the Komame and Sataniv Brotherhoods (412), others (412), the goal of the brotherhood organizations (413), obstacles (413-14), wrongs done by the bishop of Lviv (414), the disbanding of the Brest Brotherhood (414-15), the influence of the Church Union on the conservatism of brotherhood activity (415-16).
VI. The Straggle For and Against the Church Union after its Declaration — in Life and in Literature. - 417–464
Proclamation o f the Union and the literary battle for and against it:
Before the Union (417), agitation in Vilnius (417-18), the murky situation in Lviv (418), Zyzanii’s Katekhyzys and the writings that it evoked (419), the Homily on the Anti-Christ (419), Zyzanii’s trial (420). The Synod of Brest and controversy about its legitimacy (420-21), Skarga’s Description and Defense (421), Exposition (422-23), Apokrisis: Reply or Answer (423), the latter’s historico-political (424) and theological (424-25) argumentation, its unorthodoxy (425). Vyshensky (425), his biography (426), first polemical writings (427). The Writing Addressed to the Bishops Who Have Fled (427-28), criticism of the hierarchy (428-29), the letter to Ostrozky and the Advice on How Christ s Church Might Cleanse Itself (429), its ecclesiastical radicalism and inconsequence (430), the Briefly Worded Response From a Servant o f God and How a Wise Latin Picked a Fight with a Foolish Ruthenian (431 ). Potii—his letter to Ostrozky and the ‘Cleric’s’ response (431), Antirrisis: Refutation or Apology (432) and other writings of Potii’s (433), Mysail’s letter (434), Orthodox writings (434-35), the Warning (435-36).
The political struggle:
The significance of the literary polemics (436), the impossibility of an understanding (436-37), the government’s actions in favor of the Union (437), Orthodox efforts at redress at the Diets—the Diet of 1597 (438), the Orthodox summon the bishops to the Diet court (439), the government’s apparent concession (439), the alliance between the Orthodox and the Protestants—the Confederation of 1599 (439-40), displays of pusillanimity—the address of 1598 (440), the failure of the legal case (441), new attacks on the Orthodox (441 ), their moral victory at the Diet of 1601 (442) and first achievements at the Diet of 1603 (443), the Diet of 1605 (443), the decisions of the Tribunal of Vilnius (444-45). The nobiliary insurrectionist movement (445) and participation of the Orthodox in it (446), their articles (447-48), concessions from the government (448), the Volhynian articles (448-49) and the Constitution of 1607 (449).
The defeat o f the Orthodox:
The government’s insincerity (449), the nomination of the bishop of Lutsk (450), the Diet of 1609 (450), the resolution on the jurisdiction of the Tribunal and its falsification (451), the helpless situation of the Orthodox (451-52). The devastation of the clergy of Vilnius (452). The matter of the bishop of Lviv: Hedeon’s capitulation to the Lviv Brotherhood (453), Isaia Balaban and the protest against him (453-54), the election of Tysarovsky and his promise of union (454—55), interventions by the Orthodox and Tysarovsky’s declaration of Orthodoxy (455). The bishopric of Peremyshl (455-56). The lack of a hierarchy (456-57) and landowners’ pressure on the Orthodox clergy (457), hopelessness (457), the desertion of the Orthodox nobility—the address of 1603 (458), the denationalization of the magnate stratum (458), the decline of Protestantism (459). Depression among the Orthodox—the Thrënos: Threnody or Lament (459), its predecessor—Antigrafe: Response or Reply (459), the alarm caused by the Threnody (460-61), the decline of the Orthodox church as depicted by Smotrytsky (461-62), the aristocracy’s renegation (462-63). The first manifestations of a new factor—Cossackdom (463). The Hrekovych and Neophytos affair (463-64).
Notes. - 465–508
1. The Economic Life of the Ukrainian Lands in the Fourteenth to Seventeenth Centuries: Sources and Literature. - 465
2. The Black Sea Trade Route of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries: The Castles of Karavul, Chomy і Horod, and Haji Bey. - 472
3. The National Composition and Relations of the Population of Ukraine. - 475
4. Heraldic Groups of the Western Ukrainian Nobility. - 477
5. Schooling. - 479
6. Book Culture and Literature of the Fourteenth to Seventeenth Centuries. - 480
7. On the Question of Ukrainian Dumas. - 485
8. Artistic Creativity in the Ukrainian Lands in the Fourteenth to Sixteenth Centuries. - 487
9. The Literature on Culture and Everyday Life. - 494
10. Protestant Congregations in Ukraine. - 496
11. The Religio-National Movement in Ukraine in the Second Half of the Sixteenth Century and Religious Polemics. - 500
12. The Literature on Kostiantyn-Vasyl Ostrozky and His Family. - 503
13. The Brotherhoods. - 505
* * *
Bibliography. - 509
Abbreviations. - 509
Unpublished Sources. - 510
Published Sources. - 510
Secondary Literature. - 524
Appendix 1 : Monetary Units. - 551
Appendix 2: Units of Measure. - 554
Tables of Rulers and Hetmans. - 556
Translations Consulted. - 570
Index. - 571
Sysyn, Frank E. (editor in chief)
Plokhy, Serhii (deputy editor)
Pasicznyk, Uliana M. (managing editor)
Yurkevich, Myroslav (senior editor)
Stech, Marko R. (project manager)
Horban–Carynnyk, Marta (associate editor)
Hornjatkevyč, Andrij (assistant editor)
Bednarsky, Dushan (assistant editor)
Plawuszczak–Stech, Tania (technical editor)
Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies
The Peter Jacyk Centre for Ukrainian Historical Research